Knutti, R, Hegerl, GC. The equilibrium sensitivity of the Earth`s temperature to radiation changes. Nature Geosci, 2008, 1: 735–743.
Frank, DC, Esper, J, Raible, CC, Büntgen, U, Trouet, V, et al. Ensemble reconstruction constraints on the climate sensitivity of the global carbon cycle. Nature 2010, 463: 527–530.
Osborn, TJ, Briffa, KR. The real color of climate change? Science 2004, 306: 621–622.
Ammann, CM, Joos, F, Schimel, DS, Otto‐Bliesner, BL, Tomas, RA. Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: results from transient simulations with the NCAR Climate System Model. Proc Nat Acad Sci U S A 2007, 104: 3713–3718.
Esper, J, Wilson, RJS, Frank, DC, Moberg, A, Wanner, H, et al. Climate: past ranges and future changes. Quat Sci Rev 2005, 24: 2164–2166.
Cox, PM, Betts, RA, Jones, CD, Spall, SA, Totterdell, IJ. Acceleration of global warming due to carbon‐cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature 2000, 408: 184–187.
Groveman, B, Landsberg, H. Simulated northern hemisphere temperature departures 1579–1880. Geophys Res Lett 1979, 6: 767–769.
Landsberg, H, Groveman, B, Hakkarinen, I. A simple method for approximating the annual temperature of the Northern Hemisphere. Geophys Res Lett 1978, 5: 505–506.
Jacoby, G, D`Arrigo, R. Reconstructed Northern Hemisphere annual temperature since 1671 based on high‐latitude tree‐ring data from North America. Clim Change 1989, 14: 39–59.
Fritts, H. Tree Rings and Climate. Caldwell: Blackburn Press; 1976; 567.
D`Arrigo, RD, Jacoby, GC. Secular trends in high northern latitude temperature reconstructions based on tree rings. Clim Change 1993, 25: 163–177.
Bradley, R, Jones, P. Little Ice Age summer temperature variations: their nature and relevance to recent global warming trends. The Holocene 1993, 3: 367–376.
Jones, P, Briffa, K, Barnett, T, Tett, S. High‐resolution palaeoclimatic records for the last millennium: interpretation, integration and comparison with General Circulation Model control‐run temperatures. The Holocene 1998, 8: 455–471.
Mann, ME, Bradley, RS, Hughes, MK. Global‐scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries. Nature 1998, 392: 779–787.
Pollack, HN, Huang, SP, Shen, PY. Climate change record in subsurface temperatures: a global perspective. Science 1998, 282: 279–281.
Mann, ME, Bradley, RS, Hughes, MK. Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: inferences, uncertainties, and limitations. Geophys Res Lett 1999, 26: 759–762.
Huang, SP, Pollack, HN, Shen, PY. Temperature trends over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole temperatures. Nature 2000, 403: 756–758.
Briffa, K. Annual climate variability in the Holocene: interpreting the message of ancient trees. Quat Sci Rev 2000, 19: 87–105.
Crowley, T, Lowery, T. How warm was the medieval warm period? Ambio 2000, 29: 51–54.
Briffa, K, Osborn, T, Schweingruber, F, Harris, I, Jones, P, et al. Low‐frequency temperature variations from a northern tree ring density network. J Geophys Res: Atmospheres 2001, 106: 2929–2941.
Briffa, K, Osborn, T, Schweingruber, F, Jones, P, Shiyatov, S, et al. Tree‐ring width and density data around the Northern Hemisphere: part 2, spatio‐temporal variability and associated climate patterns. The Holocene 2002, 12: 759–789.
Esper, J, Cook, E, Schweingruber, F. Low‐frequency signals in long tree‐ring chronologies for reconstructing past temperature variability. Science 2002, 295: 2250–2253.
Mann, ME, Jones, PD. Global surface temperatures over the past two millennia. Geophys Res Lett 2003, 30: 1820. DOI:10.1029/2003GL017814.
Huang, S. Merging information from different resources for new insights into climate change in the past and future. Geophys Res Lett 2004, 31: L13205. DOI: 10.1029/2004gl019781.
Oerlemans, J. Extracting a climate signal from 169 glacier records. Science 2005, 308: 675–677.
Moberg, A, Sonechkin, D, Holmgren, K, Datsenko, N, Karlén, W. Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low‐and high‐resolution proxy data. Nature 2005, 433: 613–617.
Rutherford, S, Mann, ME, Osborn, TJ, Bradley, RS, Briffa, KR, et al. Proxy‐based Northern Hemisphere surface temperature reconstructions: sensitivity to method, predictor network, target season, and target domain. J Clim 2005, 18: 2308–2329.
D`Arrigo, R, Wilson, R, Jacoby, G. On the long‐term context for late twentieth century warming. J Geophys Res 2006, 111: D03103.
Smith, CL, Baker, A, Fairchild, IJ, Frisia, S, Borsato, A. Reconstructing hemispheric‐scale climates from multiple stalagmite records. Int J Clim 2006, 26: 1417–1424.
Ammann, CM, Wahl, ER. The importance of the geophysical context in statistical evaluations of climate reconstruction procedures. Clim Change 2007, 85: 71–88.
Hegerl, GC, Crowley, TJ, Allen, M, Hyde, WT, Pollack, HN, et al. Detection of human influence on a new, validated 1500‐year temperature reconstruction. J Clim 2007, 20: 650–666.
Juckes, MN, Allen, MR, Briffa, KR, Esper, J, Hegerl, GC, et al. Millennial temperature reconstruction intercomparison and evaluation. Clim Past 2007, 3: 591–609.
Frank, D, Esper, J, Cook, ER. Adjustment for proxy number and coherence in a large‐scale temperature reconstruction Geophys. Res Lett 2007, 34: L16709. DOI:10.1029/2007gl030571.
Wilson, R, D`Arrigo, R, Buckley, B, Büntgen, U, Esper, J, et al. A matter of divergence: tracking recent warming at hemispheric scales using tree ring data. J Geophys Res: Atmospheres 2007, 112: D17103. DOI:10.1029/2006JD008318.
Loehle, C. A 2000‐Year global temperature reconstruction based on non‐treering proxies. Energy Environ 2007, 18: 1049–1058.
Mann, ME, Zhang, ZH, Hughes, MK, Bradley, RS, Miller, SK, et al. Proxy‐based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008, 105: 13252–13257.
Houghton, J, Jenkins, G, Ephraums, J Climate change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment. World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environmental Programme. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press; 1990; 406.
Houghton, J, Ding, Y, Griggs, D, Noguer, M, Van der Linden, P, et al. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2001, 881.
IPCC Climate Change. The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2007.
Jones, PD, Briffa, KR, Osborn, TJ, Lough, JM, van Ommen, TD, et al. High‐resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium: a review of current status and future prospects. The Holocene 2009, 19: 3–49.
Lamb, H. The early medieval warm epoch and its sequel. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 1965, 1: 13–37.
Regalado, A, Climate Debate, The ‘Hockey Stick’Leads to a Face‐Off. The Wall Street Journal, February 14. 2005, A1.
North, G, Biondi, F, Bloomfield, P, Christy, J, Cuffey, K, et al. Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 2,000 Years. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2006.
Esper, J, Cook, E, Krusic, P, Peters, K, Schweingruber, F. Tests of the RCS method for preserving low‐frequency variability in long tree‐ring chronologies. Tree‐Ring Res 2003, 59: 81–98.
Ojala, AEK, Alenius, T. 10,000 years of interannual sedimentation recorded in the Lake Nautajärvi (Finland) clastic‐organic varves. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 2005, 219: 285–302.
Mann, M, Rutherford, S, Wahl, E, Ammann, C. Testing the fidelity of methods used in proxy‐based reconstructions of past climate. J Clim 2005, 18: 4097–4107.
Moberg, A, Mohammad, R, Mauritsen, T Analysis of the Moberg et al. (2005) hemispheric temperature reconstruction. Clim Dyn 2008, 31: 957–971.
Osborn, T, Briffa, K. Revisiting timescale‐dependent reconstruction of climate from tree‐ring chronologies. Dendrochronologia 2000, 18: 9–25.
von Storch, H, Zorita, E, Gonzàlez‐Rouco, F. Assessment of three temperature reconstruction methods in the virtual reality of a climate simulation. Int J Earth Sci 2009, 98: 67–82.
Christiansen, B, Schmith, T, Thejll, P. A surrogate ensemble study of climate reconstruction methods: stochasticity and robustness. J Clim 2009, 22: 951–976.
Lee, T, Zwiers, F, Tsao, M. Evaluation of proxy‐based millennial reconstruction methods. Clim Dyn 2008, 31: 263–281.
Thejll, P, Schmith, T. Limitations on regression analysis due to serially correlated residuals: application to climate reconstruction from proxies. J Geophys Res: Atmospheres 2005, 110: D18103. DOI:10.1029/2005jd005895.
Esper, J, Frank, DC, Wilson, RJS, Briffa, KR. Effect of scaling and regression on reconstructed temperature amplitude for the past millennium Geophys. Res Lett 2005: 32: L07711. DOI:10.1029/2004GL021236.
Frank, D, Büntgen, U, Bohm, R, Maugeri, M, Esper, J. Warmer early instrumental measurements versus colder reconstructed temperatures: shooting at a moving target. Quat Sci Rev 2007, 26: 3298–3310.
Cook, ER, Pederson, N. %22Uncertainty, emergence, and statistics in dendrochronology%22. In: Hughes, MK, Diaz, H, Swetnam, TW, eds. Dendroclimatology: Progress and Prospects. New York: Springer; 2009.
Wilson, R, Tudhope, A, Brohan, P, Briffa, K, Osborn, T, et al. Two‐hundred‐fifty years of reconstructed and modeled tropical temperatures. J Geophys Res: Oceans 2006, 111: 13.
Büntgen, U, Frank, D, Grudd, H, Esper, J. Long‐term summer temperature variations in the Pyrenees. Clim Dyn 2008, 31: 615–631.
Frank, D, Esper, J. Temperature reconstructions and comparisons with instrumental data from a tree‐ring network for the European Alps. Int J Climatol 2005, 25: 1437–1454.
Böhm, R, Jones, PD, Hiebl, J, Frank, D, Brunetti, M, et al. The early instrumental warm‐bias: a solution for long central European temperature series 1760–2007. Clim Change DOI:10.1007/s10584‐009‐9649‐4.
Thompson, D, Kennedy, J, Wallace, J, Jones, P. A large discontinuity in the mid‐twentieth century in observed global‐mean surface temperature. Nature 2008, 453: 646–649.
Hughes, M, Diaz, H. Was there a “Medieval Warm Period”, and if so, where and when? Clim Change 1994, 26: 109–142.
Bradley, R, Hughes, M, Diaz, H. Climate change: climate in medieval time. Science 2003, 302: 404.
Esper, J, Frank, D. The IPCC on a heterogeneous Medieval Warm Period. Clim Change 2009, 94: 267–273.
Trouet, V, Esper, J, Graham, NE, Baker, A, Scourse, JD, et al. Persistent positive north Atlantic oscillation mode dominated the medieval climate anomaly. Science 2009, 324: 78–80.
Büntgen, U, Frank, DC, Nievergelt, D, Esper, J. Summer temperature variations in the European Alps, AD 755–2004. J Clim 2006, 19: 5606–5623.
Cook, ER, Woodhouse, CA, Eakin, CM, Meko, DM, Stahle, DW. Long‐term aridity changes in the western US Science. 2004, 306: 1015–1018.
Graham, NE, Hughes, MK, Ammann, CM, Cobb, KM, Hoerling, MP, et al.Tropical Pacific –mid‐latitude teleconnections in medieval times. Clim Change 2007, 83: 241–285.
Seager, R, Graham, N, Herweijer, C, Gordon, AL, Kushnir, Y, et al. Blueprints for medieval hydroclimate. Quat Sci Rev 2007, 26: 2322–2336.
Mann, ME, Cane, MA, Zebiak, SE, Clement, A. Volcanic and solar forcing of the tropical Pacific over the past 1000 years. J Clim 2005, 18: 447–456.
Emile‐Geay, J, Cane, M, Seager, R, Kaplan, A, Almasi, P. El Nino as a mediator of the solar influence on climate. Paleoceanography 2007, 22: 16.
Von Storch, H, Zorita, E, Jones, J, Dimitriev, Y, Gonzalez‐Rouco, F, et al. Reconstructing past climate from noisy data. Science 2004, 306: 679–682.
Babbage, C. Passages from the Life of a Philosopher: London: Longman, Roberts, %26 Green, 1864.
van der Schrier, G, Osborn, TJ, Briffa, KR, Cook, ER. Exploring an ensemble approach to estimating skill in multiproxy palaeoclimate reconstructions. The Holocene 2007, 17: 119–129.
Esper, J, Frank, D, Buntgen, U, Verstege, A, Luterbacher, J. Long‐term drought severity variations in Morocco. Geophys Res Lett 2007, 34: L17702. DOI:10.1029/2007gl030844.
Klein, JR, Roodman, A. Blind analysis in nuclear and particle physics. Ann Rev Nuclear Particle Sci 2005, 55: 141–163.
Gao, CC, Robock, A, Ammann, C. Volcanic forcing of climate over the past 1500 years: an improved ice core‐based index for climate models. J Geophys Res: Oceans 2008; 113: D23111. DOI:10.1029/2008jd010239.
Steinhilber, F, Beer, J, Frohlich, C. Total solar irradiance during the Holocene. Geophys Res Lett 2009, 36: 5.
Pongratz, J, Reick, C, Raddatz, T, Claussen, M. A reconstruction of global agricultural areas and land cover for the last millennium. Global Biogeochem Cycles 2008, 22. DOI: 10.1029/2007 gb003153.
Wanner, H, Beer, J, Butikofer, J, Crowley, TJ, Cubasch, U, et al. Mid‐ to Late Holocene climate change: an overview. Quat Sci Rev 2008, 27: 1791–1828.
Wagner, S, Zorita, E. The influence of volcanic, solar and the Dalton Minimum (1790–1830): CO2 forcing on the temperatures in a model study. Clim Dyn 2005, 25: 205–218.
Pitman, AJ, de Noblet‐Ducoudre, N, Cruz, FT, Davin, EL, Bonan, GB, et al. Uncertainties in climate responses to past land cover change: first results from the LUCID intercomparison study. Geophys Res Lett 2009, 36: L14814. DOI: 10.1029/2009gl039076.
Jungclaus, J, et al. Ensemble simulations of the Last Millennium using an Earth System Model including an interactive carbon cycle. Geophysical Res 2009, 11:EGU2009–EGU4043.
Zorita, E, Gonzalez‐Rouco, F, Legutke, S. Testing the Mann et al. (1998) approach to paleoclimate reconstructions in the context of a 1000‐yr control simulation with the ECHO‐G coupled climate model. J Clim 2003, 16: 1378–1390.
Crowley, TJ. Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science 2000, 289: 270–277.