1 Meinshausen, M. %22What does a 2°
C target mean for greenhouse gas concentrations? A brief analysis based on multi‐gas emission pathways and several climate sensitivity uncertainty estimates%22. In: Schellnhuber, HJ, Cramer, W, Nakicenovic, N, Wigley, T, Yohe, G, eds. Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
; 2006, 265–279.
2 Fleming, JR. Historical Perspectives on Climate Change. New York: Oxford University Press
; 1998, 194 pp.
3 Manabe, S, Wetherald, RT. Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a given distribution of relative humidity. J Atmos Sci 1967, 24: 241–259.
4 Manabe, S, Wetherald, RT. The effect of doubling CO2
concentration on the climate of a general. Circ Model J Atmos Sci 1975, 32: 3–15.
5 Schneider, SH. On the carbon dioxide‐climate confusion. J Atmos Sci 1975, 32: 6182–6194.
6 Charney, JG, Arakawa, A, Baker, DJ, Bolin, B, Dickinson, RE, Goody, RM, Leith, CE, Stommel, HM, Wunsch, CI. Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences
; 1979, 22 pp.
7 Nordhaus, WD. Economic growth and climate: the carbon dioxide problem. Am Econ Rev 1977, 67: 341–346.
8 Azar, C. Are optimal CO2
emissions really optimal?. Environ Resour Econ 1998, 11: 301–315.
9 Fankhauser, S, Pearce, DW. %22The social costs of greenhouse gas emissions%22. OECD ed The Economics of Climate Change: Proceedings of an OECD/IEA Conference. Paris: OECD
; 2004, 71–86.
10 Oppenheimer, M, Petsonk, A. Defining dangerous anthropogenic interference: the role of science, the limits of science. Clim Change 2005, 71: 195–226.
11 Nordhaus, WD. To slow or not to slow: the economics of the greenhouse effect. Econ J 1991, 101: 920–937.
12 Nordhaus, WD. A Question of Balance: Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies. New Haven: Yale University Press
; 2008, 234 pp.
13 Bach, W. The CO2
issue—what are the realistic options?. Clim Change 1980, 3: 3–5.
14 National Academy Changing Climate. Washington, DC: National Academy Press
; 1983, 496 pp.
15 Agrawala, S. Context and early origins of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Clim Change 1998, 39: 605–620.
16 Prins, G, Rayner, S. The Wrong Trousers: Radically Rethinking Climate Policy. Oxford: James Martin Institute for Science and Civilization
17 Seidel, S, Keyes, D. Can We Delay a Greenhouse Warming?. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
18 Mintzer, IM. A Matter of Degrees: The Potential for Controlling the Greenhouse Effect. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute
; 1987 60 pp.
19 Holdgate, MW, Bruce, J, Camacho, RF, Desai, N, Mahtab, FU, Mascarenhas, O, Maunder, WJ, Shihab, H, Tewungwa, S. Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge: Report by a Commonwealth Group of Experts. London: Commonwealth Secretariat
; 1989, 116 pp.
20 Houghton, JT, Ding, Y, Griggs, DJ, Noguer, M, van der Linden, PJ, Xiaosu, C. Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland: The Scientific Basis
; 2001, 881 pp.
21 Agrawala, S. Early science‐policy interactions in climate change: lessons from the Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases. Global Environ Change 1999, 9: 157–169.
22 Tol, RSJ. Europe`s long‐term climate target: A critical evaluation. Energy Policy 2007, 35: 424–432.
23 Vellinga, P, Swart, R. %22The greenhouse marathon: proposal for a global strategy%22. In: Jäger, J, Ferguson, HL, eds. Climate Change: Science, Impacts and Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
; 1991, 129–134.
24 Rijsberman, FR, Swart, RJ, eds. Targets and Indicators of Climate Change: Report of Working Group II of the Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases. Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute
; 1990, 166 pp.
25 Heil, GW, Hootsmans, M. %22Rates and limits of ecosystem change%22. In: Rijsberman, FR, Swart, RJ, eds. Targets and Indicators of Climate Change: Report of Working Group II of the Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases. Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute
; 1990, 60–77.
26 Krause, F. Energy and Climate Change: What can Western Europe Do?
An Analysis of Climatic Imperatives, Climate Economics of Energy Options, and Implications for Energy Planning and Policy (Draft Report), 1988, IPSEP, Richmond.
27 World Meteorological Organization. Proceedings of the World Conference on the Changing Atmosphere: Implications for Global Security, Toronto, Canada
28 Noordwijk Ministerial Conference. The Noordwijk Declaration on Climate Change, Ministerial Conference on Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Change, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
29 Barrett, P. %22Negotiating a framework convention on climate change: economic considerations%22. OECD Ed Convention on Climate Change: Economic Aspects of Negotiation. Paris: OECD
; 1992, 9–48.
30 German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU). Scenario for the development of global CO2 reduction targets and implementation strategies
. Statement on the occasion of the First Conference of the Parties of the Framework Convention on Climate Change in Berlin. Bremerhaven: WBGU; 1995.
31 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Report of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change on the work of the second part of its fifth session, held at New York from 30 April to 9 May 1992. A/AC.237/18 (Part II)/Add.1.
32 Dessai, S, Adger, WN, Hulme, M, Turnpenny, J, Köhler, J, Warren, R. Defining and experiencing dangerous climate change. Clim Change 2004, 64: 11–25.
33 Oppenheimer, M. Defining dangerous anthropogenic interference: the role of science, the limits of science. Risk Anal 2005, 25: 1399–1407.
34 Bruce, JP, Lee, H, Haites, EF, eds. Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
35 Watson, RT, Zinyowera, MC, Moss, RH, eds. Climate Change. Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
36 Cohen, S, Demeritt, D, Robinson, J, Rothman, D. Climate change and sustainable development: towards dialogue. Global Environ Change 1998, 8: 341–371.
37 Swart, RJ, Vellinga, P. The ‘ultimate objective’ of the Framework Convention on Climate Change requires a new approach in climate change research. Clim Change 1994, 26: 343–349.
38 Munasinghe, M, Meier, P, Hoel, M, Honig, SW, Aaheim, A. %22Applicability of techniques of cost‐benefit analysis%22. In: Bruce, JP, Lee, H, Haites, EF, eds. Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
; 1996, 149–175.
39 Yohe, GW. Uncertainty, short‐term hedging and the tolerable window approach. Global Environ Change 1997, 7: 303–315.
40 IPCC Second Assessment Synthesis of Scientific‐Technical Information relevant to interpreting Article 2 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Approved at the 11th
session of the IPCC, Rome, 11th
41 European Environment Agency (EEA). EEA Climate Change in the European Union. Copenhagen: EEA
; 1996, 26 pp.
42 Bolin, BA. History of the Science and Politics of Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
; 2007, 277 pp.
43 Liverman, DM. Conventions of climate change: constructions of danger and the dispossession of the atmosphere. J Hist Geogr 2009, 35: 279–296.
44 Smith, JB, Schellnhuber, H‐J, Mirza, MQ (lead authors). %22Vulnerability to climate change and reasons for concern: a synthesis%22. In: McCarthy, JJ, Canziani, OF, Leary, NA, Dokken, DJ, White, KS, eds. Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
; 2001, 913–967.
45 Maslin, M. Global Warming: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press
; 2009, 192 pp.
46 Council of the European Union. Information note 7242/05; 11th March 2005. Available at: .
47 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Report of the Conference of Parties on its fifteenth session, held in Copenhagen from 7 to 19 December 2009 FCCC/CP/2009/11/Add.1; 2010.
48 Karas, JHW. Back from the Brink: Greenhouse Gas Targets for a Sustainable World. London: Friends of the Earth
; 1991, 37 pp.
49 Kelly, PM. Halting Global Warming. London: Greenpeace
; 1990, 81 pp.
50 Anonymous. Two Degrees of Separation: between hope and despair. Buntingford: UNDP and Peace Child International
; 2008, 36 pp.
51 Stop Climate Chaos Coalition 2009. Available at: (accessed July 10, 2009).
52 Monbiot, G. Heat: How to Stop the Planet Burning. London: Allen Lane
; 2006, 276 pp.
53 Walker, G, King, D. The Hot Topic: How to Tackle Global Warming and Still Keep the Lights On. London: Bloomsbury Press
; 2008, 309 pp.
54 Pacala, S, Socolow, R. Stabilization wedges: solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies. Science 2004, 305: 968–972.
55 Meyer, A. Contraction and Convergence: The Global Solution to Climate Change. Totnes: Green Books
; 2000, 92 pp.
56 Bowker, GC, Star, SL. Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
; 2000, 389 pp.
57 Stern, N. Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
58 Neumayer, E. A missed opportunity? The Stern review on climate change fails to tackle the issue of non‐substitutable loss of natural capital. Global Environ Change 2007, 17: 297–301.
59 Hansen, JE. A slippery slope: How much global warming constitutes ‘dangerous anthropogenic interference’? Clim Change 2005, 68: 269–279.
60 Schneider, SH, Mastrandrea, MD. Probabilistic assessment of “dangerous” climate change and emissions pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2005, 102: 15728–15735.
61 Boykoff, MT, Frame, D, Randalls, S. Discursive stability meets climate instability: a critical exploration of the concept of ‘climate stabilization’ in contemporary climate policy. Global Environ Change 2010, 20: 53–64.
62 Rive, N, Torvanger, A, Berntsen, T, Kallbekken, S. To what extent can a long‐term temperature target guide near‐term climate change commitments? Clim Change 2007, 82: 373–391.
63 Clarke, L, Edmonds, J, Krey, V, Richels, R, Rose, S, Tavoni, M. International climate policy architectures: Overview of the EMF 22 International Scenarios. Energy Econ 2009, 31: S64–S81.