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WIREs Cogn Sci
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Dual–systems and the development of reasoning: competence–procedural systems

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Dual‐system, dual‐process, accounts of adult cognitive processing are examined in the context of a self‐organizing relational developmental systems approaches to cognitive growth. Contemporary adult dual‐process accounts describe a linear architecture of mind entailing two split‐off, but interacting systems; a domain general, content‐free ‘analytic’ system (system 2) and a domain specific highly contextualized ‘heuristic’ system (system 1). In the developmental literature on deductive reasoning, a similar distinction has been made between a domain general competence (reflective, algorithmic) system and a domain specific procedural system. In contrast to the linear accounts offered by empiricist, nativist, and/or evolutionary explanations, the dual competence–procedural developmental perspective argues that the mature systems emerge through developmental transformations as differentiations and intercoordinations of an early relatively undifferentiated action matrix. This development, whose microscopic mechanism is action‐in‐the‐world, is characterized as being embodied, nonlinear, and epigenetic. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 231–237 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.120

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Stan Klein

Stan Klein

Dr. Stan Klein’s research revolves around understanding self, memory, and consciousness. Klein argues that the unitary self of everyday experience actually is a multiplicity. For example, within memory, there are various, functionally independent systems of self-knowledge, including semantic personal facts, abstract trait self-knowledge, and episodic narratives.  Another aspect of self is its subjectivity. This form of consciousness interacts with the neurally-based aspects of self to produce the human experience of self.

Dr. Klein believes that we need to move beyond studying memory content and focus on how that content is presented to awareness. He argues that it is the manner in which content is apprehended by awareness that determines whether we experience content as episodic or semantic.

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