Home
This Title All WIREs
WIREs RSS Feed
How to cite this WIREs title:
WIREs Energy Environ.

Sodium ion batteries: a newer electrochemical storage

Full article on Wiley Online Library:   HTML PDF

Can't access this content? Tell your librarian.

Vehicle electrification is one of the most significant solutions that address the challenges of fossil fuel depletion, global warming, CO2 pollution, and so on. To mitigate these issues, recent research mainly focuses on finding clean energy storage devices such as batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, and so forth. Owing to the outstanding energy and power density, lithium‐ion batteries (LIB) have captured the market for portable electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles, and so on. During 1970–1980s, electrode materials for both LIBs and sodium‐ion batteries (NIBs) were investigated but higher energy and power density of LIBs have made it a popular candidate for portable electronics. Issues arise on the availability of lithium reserves, so it is high time we take a look at finding alternative energy storage system without compromising on the energy and power density of the state‐of‐the‐art LIBs. Therefore, researchers have revisited NIBs and recent developments have contributed towards discovering new electrode materials to match the energy and power density of LIBs at low cost. While a variety of positive and negative electrode materials have been investigated for NIBs so far, the influence of voltage, capacity, cycle life, and volume expansion of negative electrodes on Na+ ion extraction and insertion are more as compared with LIBs. This affects the energy and power density of NIBs but cost‐effective partial replacement of LIBs is viable and is widely pursued.

(a) Cycling results for germanium thin films deposited at incident angles of 0 and 70°. Cycling was performed at C/5 after an initial conditioning cycle of C/20. (b) Voltage profiles for the 1st, 2nd, 10th, 25th, 50th, and 100th sodium insertion cycles in nanocolumnar germanium deposited at 70°. (c) C‐rate testing of 70° germanium thin films with 10 cycles each at 3.7, 7.4, 18.4, and 27 C (10 A/g), and (d) voltage profiles for sodium insertion cycles at each rate in the C‐rate test. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
(a) Hierarchical structure of wood fiber. (b) Soft wood fiber substrates effectively release sodiation‐generated stresses by structural wrinkling. The thickness of Sn is 50 nm and the fiber diameter is approximately 25 µm. (c) Dual pathways for ion transport. The hierarchical and mesoporous structure of the fiber plays an important role as an electrolyte reservoir. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Electrochemical performance of the FN‐CNF as an anode material for sodium‐ion battery (capacity retention dependent on cycle and rate). (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013, Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
(a) TEM image and (b) HR‐TEM image of hollow carbon nanospheres. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012, WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Key positive and negative electrode intercalation materials for sodium‐ion batteries: theoretical capacities of the various materials at their various potentials are shown as blue ovals, while achieved capacities are shown with gray bars. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012, Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Potential versus capacity plot for materials reported to exhibit reversible sodium insertion and hence being potential electrode materials for sodium ion cells. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Rate capability studies: (a) Charge/discharge curves of a Li/CLiTi2(PO4)3 cell at various current densities, (b) charge/discharge traces of a Na/C‐LiTi2(PO4)3 cell at various current densities, and (c) a plot of discharge capacity versus cycle number. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2014 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Characterizations of Na3V2(PO4)3/C: (a) XRD pattern under 1 and 5 C, (b, c) HRTEM images under 5 C after 100 cycles. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Cyclic voltammograms of Na4Co3(PO4)2P2O7 at the second and fifth cycles. The sweeping potential was between 3.9 and 4.8 V versus Na+/Na at the rate of 0.01 mV second−1. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013, Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Discharge curves of the Na2FeP2O7‐positive electrode at various current densities at 363 K. The charging up to 4.5 V was always conducted at 5 mA g−1. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2014, Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Structures of (a) olivine and (b) maricite shown in the 101 plane. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011, American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Schematic illustrations of the crystal structure of Na1−xNi0.5Mn0.5O2. Sodium ions are located at the octahedral and prismatic sites in O3 and P2 types, respectively. Unit cells of hexagonal and monoclinic lattices are indicated as blue and black lines, respectively. The origin of the O′3 monoclinic phase was shifted by (−100) for comparison (left). The relationship between hexagonal and monoclinic lattices along (001) is also shown (right). (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
(a) Galvanostatic curves of P2‐Na0.74CoO2/NaPF6/Na cells at the current rates of 0.1 C; (b) galvanostatic curves of P2‐Na0.74CoO2/NaClO4/Na cells at current rates of 0.05 C, and (c) coulombic efficiency of the cells as a function of cycle numbers. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013, Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Relationships between the monoclinic cells of O3 and P3 lattices. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 1981, Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Rate capability of the SiC–Cu–Sb–C and SiC–Sb–C nanocomposite electrodes at various current rates from 20 to 800 mA g−1. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013, Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
(a–d) Schematic illustration of nanohierarchical 3D anode arrays consisting of TMV1cys/Ni/Sn/C self‐aligned on stainless steel. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013, American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
TEM images showing the structural evolution of the Sn nanowire during the cyclic sodiation and desodiation: (a) the first sodiation, (b) the first desodiation, (c) the second sodiation, (d) the second desodiation processes; the black arrows in panels (b) and (d) indicate the pores; the black arrows in panel (c) indicate the limited swelling of the isolated Sn islands. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
(a) SEM images of mesoporous carbon spheres and (b) Se/C composite. (c) TEM image of selenium‐impregnated carbon composite; elemental mapping images of the Se/C composite: Se (d) and carbon (e). (f) XRD pattern of the Se/C composite. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Schematic of the as‐prepared Na0.7MnO2 rhombus‐shaped nanoplates exposing the (100) crystal plane. Mn, O, and Na are in blue–purple, red, and yellow, respectively. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
PITT curve starting at reduction (cycling rate of ca. C/200 with a 5 mV step) of the Na0.44MnO2/C composite electrode in an NaClO4/PC electrolyte (blue dotted line). Corresponding incremental capacity curve: red solid line. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2007, American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]

Browse by Topic

Energy and Development > Science and Materials
Fuel Cells and Hydrogen > Science and Materials
Fuel Cells and Hydrogen
blog comments powered by Disqus

Access to this WIREs title is by subscription only.

Recommend to Your
Librarian Now!

The latest WIREs articles in your inbox

Sign Up for Article Alerts

Twitter: GCB_Bioenergy Follow us on Twitter

    Scandinavian forest companies announce they will diversify and invest to generate bioenergy resources http://t.co/65sK9oW8nt
    $312 million energy project initiates, promises to bring more than 10 sugar refining hubs to Louisiana http://t.co/yQUwsrgjPg