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WIREs Energy Environ.

Comparative analysis of biodiesel versus green diesel

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The use of biofuels is becoming more and more common because of both environmental and economical concerns. Several attempts have been made for the substitution of fossil fuels with other alternative fuels. An important feedstock for the production of biofuels fully adapted to modern engine technology is ester molecules derived from refined or crude vegetable oils and animal fats. Two distinct techniques have been applied for the transformation of the vegetable oil's esters into molecules compatible with petroleum diesel that is transesterification of ester molecules for the production of lighter esters by using an alcohol and hydrogenation of ester bonds for the production of linear hydrocarbons. The way both biofuels are produced is discussed in this work. Raw materials tested, production methods and systems investigated, feasibility of production of these fuels in plant and industrial scale and the main characteristics of the two fuels are included. WIREs Energy Environ 2014, 3:3–23. doi: 10.1002/wene.78

Mechanism of alkali catalyzed transesterification. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 1998, S.B.Q., Sociedade Brasileira de Química.)
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Typical industrial process involving alkali catalysis.
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Transesterification of typical triglycerides using methanol.
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Coprocessing of vegetable oil and gas oil for the production of a mixture of diesel and green diesel.
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Schematic diagram of production of a mixture of diesel and green diesel with neat vegetable oil HDO and gas oil HDS.
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Hydrogenation of triglyceride via the three proposed reaction pathways.
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Industrial process steps for biodiesel production using waste oil with high concentration in FFAs. A pretreatment stage of the fatty acid is required before the transesterification for avoiding the formation of soaps or ester molecule's hydrolysis.
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Mechanism of acidic catalyzed transesterification. (Reproduced with permission from Ref 27. Copyright 1998, S.B.Q., Sociedade Brasileira de Química.)
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Bioenergy: Technologies and Fuels
Bioenergy: Technologies and Fuels > Science and Materials
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