This WIREs title offers downloadable PowerPoint presentations of figures for non-profit,
educational use, provided the content is not modified and full credit is given to the author
References1 Flegal, KM, Carroll, MD, Kuczmarski, RJ, Johnson, CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960–1994. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998, 22: 39–47. 2 Ogden, CL, Carroll, MD, Curtin, LR, McDowell, MA, Tabak, CJ, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA 2006, 295: 1549–1555. 3 Ogden, CL, Yanovski, SZ, Carroll, MD, Flegal, KM. The epidemiology of obesity. Gastroenterology 2007, 132: 2087–2102. 4 Ford, ES, Mokdad, AH. Epidemiology of obesity in the Western Hemisphere. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008, 93: S1–S8. 5 Ogden, CL, Carroll, MD, Flegal, KM. High body mass index for age among US children and adolescents, 2003–2006. JAMA 2008, 299: 2401–2405. 6 Lawrence, VJ, Kopelman, PG. Medical consequences of obesity. Clin Dermatol 2004, 22: 296–302. 7 Kopelman, PG. Obesity as a medical problem. Nature 2000, 404: 635–643. 8 Flegal, KM, Graubard, BI, Williamson, DF, Gail, MH. Cause‐specific excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. JAMA 2007, 298: 2028–2037. 9 Kolotkin, RL, Meter, K, Williams, GR. Quality of life and obesity. Obes Rev 2001, 2: 219–229. 10 Muennig, P. The body politic: the relationship between stigma and obesity‐associated disease. BMC Public Health 2008, 8: 128. 11 Sarlio‐Lahteenkorva, S, Stunkard, A, Rissanen, A. Psychosocial factors and quality of life in obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995, 19( suppl 6): S1–S5. 12 Finkelstein, EA, Fiebelkorn, IC, Wang, G. National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: how much, and who`s paying? Health Aff (Millwood) 2003. (Suppl Web Exclusives:W3: 219–226). 13 Sturm, R. The effects of obesity, smoking, and drinking on medical problems and costs. Health Aff (Millwood) 2002, 21: 245–253. 14 Thorpe, KE, Florence, CS, Howard, DH, Joski, P. The impact of obesity on rising medical spending. Health Aff (Millwood) 2004. (Suppl Web Exclusives:W4: 480–486). 15 Finkelstein, EA, Trogdon, JG, Brown, DS, Allaire, BT, Dellea, PS, et al. The lifetime medical cost burden of overweight and obesity: implications for obesity prevention. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008, 16: 1843–1848. 16 Trogdon, JG, Finkelstein, EA, Hylands, T, Dellea, PS, Kamal‐Bahl, SJ. Indirect costs of obesity: a review of the current literature. Obes Rev 2008, 9: 489–500. 17 Finkelstein, EA, Trogdon, JG, Cohen, JW, Dietz, W. Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: payer‐ and service‐specific estimates. Health Aff (Millwood) 2009, W8: 22–83. 18 Thorleifsson, G, Walters, GB, Gudbjartsson, DF, Steinthorsdottir, V, Sulem, P, et al. Genome‐wide association yields new sequence variants at seven loci that associate with measures of obesity. Nat Genet 2009, 41: 18–24. 19 Willer, CJ, Speliotes, EK, Loos, RJ, Li, S, Lindgren, CM, et al., Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits Consortium. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation. Nat Genet 2009, 41: 25–34. 20 Farooqi, IS, O`Rahilly, S. Monogenic human obesity syndromes. Recent Prog Horm Res 2004, 59: 409–424. 21 Chung, WK, Leibel, RL. Considerations regarding the genetics of obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008, 16( suppl 3): S33–S39. 22 August, GP, Caprio, S, Fennoy, I, Freemark, M, Kaufman, FR, et al. Endocrine Society: prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline based on expert opinion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008, 93: 4576–4599. 23 Cope, MB, Allison, DB, Critical review of the World Health Organization`s (WHO). 2007 report on ‘evidence of the long‐term effects of breastfeeding: systematic reviews and meta‐analysis’ with respect to obesity. Obes Rev 2008, 9: 594–605. 24 Qi, L, Cho, YA. Gene‐environment interaction and obesity. Nutr Rev 2008, 66: 684–694. 25 Marti, A, Martinez‐Gonzalez, MA, Martinez, JA. Interaction between genes and lifestyle factors on obesity. Proc Nutr Soc 2008, 67: 1–8. 26 Levin, BE. Epigenetic influences on food intake and physical activity level: review of animal studies. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008, 16( suppl 3): S51–S54. 27 Abizaid, A, Horvath, TL. Brain circuits regulating energy homeostasis. Regul Pept 2008, 149: 3–10. 28 Berthoud, HR, Morrison, C. The brain, appetite, and obesity. Annu Rev Psychol 2008, 59: 55–92. 29 Lenard, NR, Berthoud, HR. Central and peripheral regulation of food intake and physical activity: pathways and genes. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008, 16( suppl 3): S11–S22. 30 Morrison, CD, Berthoud, HR. Neurobiology of nutrition and obesity. Nutr Rev 2007, 65: 517–534. 31 Crowley, VE. Overview of human obesity and central mechanisms regulating energy homeostasis. Ann Clin Biochem 2008, 45: 245–255. 32 Woods, SC, D`Alessio, DA. Central control of body weight and appetite. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008, 93( suppl 1): S37–S50. 33 Meister, B. Neurotransmitters in key neurons of the hypothalamus that regulate feeding behavior and body weight. Physiol Behav 2007, 92: 263–271. 34 Gao, Q, Horvath, TL. Neurobiology of feeding and energy expenditure. Annu Rev Neurosci 2007, 30: 367–398. 35 Abizaid, A, Gao, Q, Horvath, TL. Thoughts for food: brain mechanisms and peripheral energy balance. Neuron 2006, 51: 691–702. 36 Morton, GJ, Cummings, DE, Baskin, DG, Barsh, GS, Schwartz, MW. Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight. Nature 2006, 443: 289–295. 37 Schwartz, MW, Woods, SC, Porte, D Jr, Seeley, RJ, Baskin, DG. Central nervous system control of food intake. Nature 2000, 404: 661–671. 38 Wang, GJ, Volkow, ND, Thanos, PK, Fowler, JS. Similarity between obesity and drug addiction as assessed by neurofunctional imaging: a concept review. J Addict Dis 2004, 23: 39–53. 39 Rogers, PJ, Smit, HJ. Food craving and food “addiction”: a critical review of the evidence from a biopsychosocial perspective. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2000, 66: 3–14. 40 Lutter, M, Nestler, EJ. Homeostatic and hedonic signals interact in the regulation of food intake. J Nutr 2009, 139: 629–632. 41 Moore, RY, Bloom, FE. Central catecholamine neuron systems: anatomy and physiology of the dopamine systems. Annu Rev Neurosci 1978, 1: 129–169. 42 Bjorklund, A, Dunnett, SB. Dopamine neuron systems in the brain: an update. Trends Neurosci 2007, 30: 194–202. 43 Fibiger, HC, Phillips, AG. Mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems and reward. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1988, 537: 206–215. 44 Berridge, KC, Kringelbach, ML. Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2008, 199: 457–480. 45 Meguid, MM, Fetissov, SO, Varma, M, Sato, T, Zhang, L, et al. Hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin in the regulation of food intake. Nutrition 2000, 16: 843–857. 46 Smith, GP, Schneider, LH. Relationships between mesolimbic dopamine function and eating behavior. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1988, 537: 254–261. 47 Hoebel, BG, Hernandez, L, Schwartz, DH, Mark, GP, Hunter, GA. Microdialysis studies of brain norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine release during ingestive behavior. Theoretical and clinical implications. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1989, 575: 171–191; discussion 192‐3. 48 Salamone, JD, Correa, M. Motivational views of reinforcement: implications for understanding the behavioral functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine. Behav Brain Res 2002, 137: 3–25. 49 Palmiter, RD. Is dopamine a physiologically relevant mediator of feeding behavior? Trends Neurosci 2007, 30: 375–381. 50 Volkow, ND, Wang, GJ, Fowler, JS, Telang, F. Overlapping neuronal circuits in addiction and obesity: evidence of systems pathology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2008, 363: 3191–3200. 51 Palmiter, RD. Dopamine signaling in the dorsal striatum is essential for motivated behaviors: lessons from dopamine‐deficient mice. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008, 1129: 35–46. 52 Wellman, PJ. Modulation of eating by central catecholamine systems. Curr Drug Targets 2005, 6: 191–199. 53 Bouthenet, ML, Souil, E, Martres, MP, Sokoloff, P, Giros, B, Schwartz, JC. Localization of dopamine D3 receptor mRNA in the rat brain using in situ hybridization histochemistry: comparison with dopamine D2 receptor mRNA. Brain Res 1991, 564: 203–219. 54 Cooper, SJ, Francis, J, Barber, DJ. Selective dopamine D‐1 receptor agonists, SK%26F 38393 and CY 208–243 reduce sucrose sham‐feeding in the rat. Neuropharmacology 1993, 32: 101–102. 55 Fremeau, RT Jr, Duncan, GE, Fornaretto, MG, Dearry, A, Gingrich, JA, Breese, GR, Caron, MG. Localization of D1 dopamine receptor mRNA in brain supports a role in cognitive, affective, and neuroendocrine aspects of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991, 88: 3772–3776. 56 Ramos, EJ, Meguid, MM, Campos, AC, Coelho, JC. Neuropeptide Y, alpha‐melanocyte‐stimulating hormone, and monoamines in food intake regulation. Nutrition 2005, 21: 269–279. 57 Hernandez, L, Hoebel, BG. Food intake and lateral hypothalamic self‐stimulation covary after medial hypothalamic lesions or ventral midbrain 6‐hydroxydopamine injections that cause obesity. Behav Neurosci 1989, 103: 412–422. 58 Meguid, MM, Yang, ZJ, Montante, A. Lateral hypothalamic dopaminergic neural activity in response to total parenteral nutrition. Surgery 1993, 114: 400–405; discussion 405‐6. 59 Meguid, MM, Yang, ZJ, Koseki, M. Eating induced rise in LHA‐dopamine correlates with meal size in normal and bulbectomized rats. Brain Res Bull 1995, 36: 487–490. 60 Yang, ZJ, Koseki, M, Meguid, MM, Laviano, A. Eating‐related increase of dopamine concentration in the LHA with oronasal stimulation. Am J Physiol 1996, 270: R315–R318. 61 Najam, N. Involvement of dopaminergic systems in the ventromedial hypothalamic hyperphagia. Brain Res Bull 1988, 21: 571–574. 62 Giannakopoulos, G, Galanopoulou, P, Daifotis, Z, Couvaris, C. Effects of mesulergine treatment on diet selection, brain serotonin (5‐HT) and dopamine (DA) turnover in free feeding rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1998, 22: 803–813. 63 Leibowitz, SF, Rossakis, C. Pharmacological characterization of perifornical hypothalamic dopamine receptors mediating feeding inhibition in the rat. Brain Res 1979, 172: 115–130. 64 Leibowitz, SF, Rossakis, C. Mapping study of brain dopamine‐ and epinephrine‐sensitive sites which cause feeding suppression in the rat. Brain Res 1979, 172: 101–113. 65 Gilbert, DB, Cooper, SJ. Analysis of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor involvement in d‐ and l‐amphetamine‐induced anorexia in rats. Brain Res Bull 1985, 15: 385–389. 66 Yang, ZJ, Meguid, MM, Koseki, M, Oler, A, Chong, C, et al. Increased food intake and body weight gain after lateral hypothalamic dopaminergic cell implantation. Neuroreport 1996, 7: 449–453. 67 Parada, M, Hernandez, L, Schwartz, D, Hoebel, BG. Hypothalamic infusion of amphetamine increases serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine. Physiol Behav 1988, 44: 607–610. 68 Baptista, T, Parada, M, Hernandez, L. Long term administration of some antipsychotic drugs increases body weight and feeding in rats. Are D2 dopamine receptors involved? Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1987, 27: 399–405. 69 Meguid, MM, Yang, ZJ, Laviano, A. Meal size and number: relationship to dopamine levels in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Am J Physiol 1997, 272: R1925–R1930. 70 Berridge, KC, Robinson, TE, Aldridge, JW. Dissecting components of reward: ‘liking’, ‘wanting’, and learning. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2009, 9: 65–73. 71 Ikemoto, S. Dopamine reward circuitry: two projection systems from the ventral midbrain to the nucleus accumbens‐olfactory tubercle complex. Brain Res Rev 2007, 56: 27–78. 72 Wise, RA. Dopamine and reward: the anhedonia hypothesis 30 years on. Neurotox Res 2008, 14: 169–183. 73 Cannon, CM, Palmiter, RD. Reward without dopamine. J Neurosci 2003, 23: 10827–10831. 74 Salamone, JD, Correa, M, Mingote, SM, Weber, SM. Beyond the reward hypothesis: alternative functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2005, 5: 34–41. 75 Berridge, KC. The debate over dopamine`s role in reward: the case for incentive salience. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2007, 191: 391–431. 76 Baldo, BA, Kelley, AE. Discrete neurochemical coding of distinguishable motivational processes: insights from nucleus accumbens control of feeding. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2007, 191: 439–459. 77 Kelley, AE, Baldo, BA, Pratt, WE, Will, MJ. Corticostriatal‐hypothalamic circuitry and food motivation: integration of energy, action and reward. Physiol Behav 2005, 86: 773–795. 78 Hernandez, L, Hoebel, BG. Food reward and cocaine increase extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens as measured by microdialysis. Life Sci 1988, 42: 1705–1712. 79 Hoebel, BG. Brain neurotransmitters in food and drug reward. Am J Clin Nutr 1985, 42( suppl 5): 1133–1150. 80 Hernandez, L, Lee, F, Hoebel, BG. Simultaneous microdialysis and amphetamine infusion in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of freely moving rats: increase in extracellular dopamine and serotonin. Brain Res Bull 1987, 19: 623–628. 81 Liang, NC, Hajnal, A, Norgren, R. Sham feeding corn oil increases accumbens dopamine in the rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2006, 291: R1236–R1239. 82 Hajnal, A, Smith, GP, Norgren, R. Oral sucrose stimulation increases accumbens dopamine in the rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2004, 286: R31–R37. 83 Hajnal, A, Norgren, R. Accumbens dopamine mechanisms in sucrose intake. Brain Res 2001, 904: 76–84. 84 Salamone, JD, Cousins, MS, Snyder, BJ. Behavioral functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine: empirical and conceptual problems with the anhedonia hypothesis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1997, 21: 341–359. 85 Szczypka, MS, Rainey, MA, Kim, DS, Alaynick, WA, Marck, BT, et al. Feeding behavior in dopamine‐deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999, 96: 12138–12143. 86 Szczypka, MS, Kwok, K, Brot, MD, Marck, BT, Matsumoto, AM, et al. Dopamine production in the caudate putamen restores feeding in dopamine‐deficient mice. Neuron 2001, 30: 819–828. 87 Wang, GJ, Volkow, ND, Fowler, JS. The role of dopamine in motivation for food in humans: implications for obesity. Expert Opin Ther Targets 2002, 6: 601–609. 88 Zheng, H, Berthoud, HR. Eating for pleasure or calories. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2007, 7: 607–612. 89 Zheng, H, Berthoud, HR. Neural systems controlling the drive to eat: mind versus metabolism. Physiology (Bethesda) 2008, 23: 75–83. 90 Berridge, KC, Robinson, TE. Parsing reward. Trends Neurosci 2003, 26: 507–513. 91 Elman, I, Borsook, D, Lukas, SE. Food intake and reward mechanisms in patients with schizophrenia: implications for metabolic disturbances and treatment with second‐generation antipsychotic agents. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006, 31: 2091–2120. 92 Holtzman, SG. Behavioral effects of separate and combined administration of naloxone and d‐amphetamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1974, 189: 51–60. 93 Yeomans, MR, Gray, RW. Opioid peptides and the control of human ingestive behaviour. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2002, 26: 713–728. 94 Erlanson‐Albertsson, C. How palatable food disrupts appetite regulation. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2005, 97: 61–73. 95 Pecina, S. Opioid reward ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ in the nucleus accumbens. Physiol Behav 2008, 94: 675–680. 96 Figlewicz, DP, Benoit, SC. Insulin, leptin, and food reward: update 2008. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2009, 296: R9–R19. 97 DiLeone, RJ, Georgescu, D, Nestler, EJ. Lateral hypothalamic neuropeptides in reward and drug addiction. Life Sci 2003, 73: 759–768. 98 Hommel, JD, Trinko, R, Sears, RM, Georgescu, D, Liu, ZW, et al. Leptin receptor signaling in midbrain dopamine neurons regulates feeding. Neuron 2006, 51: 801–810. 99 Figlewicz, DP, Bennett, JL, Aliakbari, S, Zavosh, A, Sipols, AJ. Insulin acts at different CNS sites to decrease acute sucrose intake and sucrose self‐administration in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2008, 295: R388–R394. 100 Pardini, AW, Nguyen, HT, Figlewicz, DP, Baskin, DG, Williams, DL, et al. Distribution of insulin receptor substrate‐2 in brain areas involved in energy homeostasis. Brain Res 2006, 1112: 169–178. 101 Malik, S, McGlone, F, Bedrossian, D, Dagher, A. Ghrelin modulates brain activity in areas that control appetitive behavior. Cell Metab 2008, 7: 400–409. 102 Abizaid, A, Liu, ZW, Andrews, ZB, Shanabrough, M, Borok, E, et al. Ghrelin modulates the activity and synaptic input organization of midbrain dopamine neurons while promoting appetite. J Clin Invest 2006, 116: 3229–3239. 103 Bassareo, V, Di Chiara, G. Differential responsiveness of dopamine transmission to food‐stimuli in nucleus accumbens shell/core compartments. Neuroscience 1999, 89: 637–641. 104 Figlewicz, DP, Brot, MD, McCall, AL, Szot, P. Diabetes causes differential changes in CNS noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons in the rat: a molecular study. Brain Res 1996, 736: 54–60. 105 Figlewicz, DP, Szot, P, Chavez, M, Woods, SC, Veith, RC. Intraventricular insulin increases dopamine transporter mRNA in rat VTA/substantia nigra. Brain Res 1994, 644: 331–334. 106 Figlewicz, DP. Adiposity signals and food reward: expanding the CNS roles of insulin and leptin. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2003, 284: R882–R892. 107 Olszewski, PK, Schioth, HB, Levine, AS. Ghrelin in the CNS: from hunger to a rewarding and memorable meal? Brain Res Rev 2008, 58: 160–170. 108 Jerlhag, E, Egecioglu, E, Dickson, SL, Andersson, M, Svensson, L, Engel, JA. Ghrelin stimulates locomotor activity and accumbal dopamine‐overflow via central cholinergic systems in mice: implications for its involvement in brain reward. Addict Biol 2006, 11: 45–54. 109 Naleid, AM, Grace, MK, Cummings, DE, Levine, AS. Ghrelin induces feeding in the mesolimbic reward pathway between the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens. Peptides 2005, 26: 2274–2279. 110 Quarta, D, Di Francesco, C, Melotto, S, Mangiarini, L, Heidbreder, C, et al. Systemic administration of ghrelin increases extracellular dopamine in the shell but not the core subdivision of the nucleus accumbens. Neurochem Int 2009, 54: 89–94. 111 Toshinai, K, Date, Y, Murakami, N, Shimada, M, Mondal, MS, et al. Ghrelin‐induced food intake is mediated via the orexin pathway. Endocrinology 2003, 144: 1506–1512. 112 Chen, HY, Trumbauer, ME, Chen, AS, Weingarth, DT, Adams, JR, et al. Orexigenic action of peripheral ghrelin is mediated by neuropeptide Y and agouti‐related protein. Endocrinology 2004, 145: 2607–2612. 113 Benoit, SC, Tracy, AL, Davis, JF, Choi, D, Clegg, DJ. Novel functions of orexigenic hypothalamic peptides: from genes to behavior. Nutrition 2008, 24: 843–847. 114 Harris, GC, Wimmer, M, Aston‐Jones, G. A role for lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons in reward seeking. Nature 2005, 437: 556–559. 115 Narita, M, Nagumo, Y, Hashimoto, S, Narita, M, Khotib, J, et al. Direct involvement of orexinergic systems in the activation of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway and related behaviors induced by morphine. J Neurosci 2006, 26: 398–405. 116 Sakurai, T, Amemiya, A, Ishii, M, Matsuzaki, I, Chemelli, RM, et al. Orexins and orexin receptors: a family of hypothalamic neuropeptides and G protein‐coupled receptors that regulate feeding behavior. Cell 1998, 92: 573–585. 117 Borgland, SL, Taha, SA, Sarti, F, Fields, HL, Bonci, A. Orexin A in the VTA is critical for the induction of synaptic plasticity and behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Neuron 2006, 49: 589–601. 118 Vittoz, NM, Schmeichel, B, Berridge, CW. Hypocretin /orexin preferentially activates caudomedial ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Eur J Neurosci 2008, 28: 1629–1640. 119 Alberto, CO, Trask, RB, Quinlan, ME, Hirasawa, M. Bidirectional dopaminergic modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in orexin neurons. J Neurosci 2006, 26: 10043–10050. 120 Bubser, M, Fadel, JR, Jackson, LL, Meador‐Woodruff, JH, Jing, D, et al. Dopaminergic regulation of orexin neurons. Eur J Neurosci 2005, 21: 2993–3001. 121 Pissios, P, Bradley, RL, Maratos‐Flier, E. Expanding the scales: The multiple roles of MCH in regulating energy balance and other biological functions. Endocr Rev 2006, 27: 606–620. 122 Qu, D, Ludwig, DS, Gammeltoft, S, Piper, M, Pelleymounter, MA, et al. A role for melanin‐concentrating hormone in the central regulation of feeding behaviour. Nature 1996, 380: 243–247. 123 Georgescu, D, Sears, RM, Hommel, JD, Barrot, M, Bolanos, CA, et al. The hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin‐concentrating hormone acts in the nucleus accumbens to modulate feeding behavior and forced‐swim performance. J Neurosci 2005, 25: 2933–2940. 124 Chung, S, Hopf, FW, Nagasaki, H, Li, CY, Belluzzi, JD, et al. The melanin‐concentrating hormone system modulates cocaine reward. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009, 106: 6772–6777. 125 Pissios, P, Frank, L, Kennedy, AR, Porter, DR, Marino, FE, et al. Dysregulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system and reward in MCH‐/‐ mice. Biol Psychiatry 2008, 64: 184–191. 126 Fetissov, SO, Byrne, LC, Hassani, H, Ernfors, P, Hokfelt, T. Characterization of neuropeptide Y Y2 and Y5 receptor expression in the mouse hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol 2004, 470: 256–265. 127 Korotkova, TM, Brown, RE, Sergeeva, OA, Ponomarenko, AA, Haas, HL. Effects of arousal‐ and feeding‐related neuropeptides on dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area of the rat. Eur J Neurosci 2006, 23: 2677–2685. 128 Cao, G, Gardner, A, Westfall, TC. Mechanism of dopamine mediated inhibition of neuropeptide Y release from pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells). Biochem Pharmacol 2007, 73: 1446–1454. 129 Pelletier, G, Simard, J. Dopaminergic regulation of pre‐proNPY mRNA levels in the rat arcuate nucleus. Neurosci Lett 1991, 127: 96–98. 130 Smialowska, M, Bajkowska, M, Heilig, M, Obuchowicz, E, Turchan, J, et al. Pharmacological studies on the monoaminergic influence on the synthesis and expression of neuropeptide Y and corticotropin releasing factor in rat brain amygdala. Neuropeptides 2001, 35: 82–91. 131 Lindefors, N, Brene, S, Herrera‐Marschitz, M, Persson, H. Neuropeptide gene expression in brain is differentially regulated by midbrain dopamine neurons. Exp Brain Res 1990, 80: 489–500. 132 Yang, SC, Shieh, KR. Differential effects of melanin concentrating hormone on the central dopaminergic neurons induced by the cocaine‐ and amphetamine‐regulated transcript peptide. J Neurochem 2005, 92: 637–646. 133 Lindblom, J, Opmane, B, Mutulis, F, Mutule, I, Petrovska, R, et al. The MC4 receptor mediates alpha‐MSH induced release of nucleus accumbens dopamine. Neuroreport 2001, 12: 2155–2158. 134 Lindblom, J, Kask, A, Hagg, E, Harmark, L, Bergstrom, L, Wikberg, J. Chronic infusion of a melanocortin receptor agonist modulates dopamine receptor binding in the rat brain. Pharmacol Res 2002, 45: 119–124. 135 Tiligada, E, Wilson, JF. D2‐ but not D1‐dopamine receptors are involved in the inhibitory control of alpha‐melanocyte‐stimulating hormone release from the rat hypothalamus. Exp Brain Res 1989, 74: 645–648. 136 Alvaro, JD, Taylor, JR, Duman, RS. Molecular and behavioral interactions between central melanocortins and cocaine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003, 304: 391–399. 137 Nestler, EJ, Carlezon, WA Jr. The mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in depression. Biol Psychiatry 2006, 59: 1151–1159. 138 Patterson, TA, Brot, MD, Zavosh, A, Schenk, JO, Szot, P, et al. Food deprivation decreases mRNA and activity of the rat dopamine transporter. Neuroendocrinology 1998, 68: 11–20. 139 Fetissov, SO, Meguid, MM, Sato, T, Zhang, LH. Expression of dopaminergic receptors in the hypothalamus of lean and obese Zucker rats and food intake. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2002, 283: R905–R910. 140 Figlewicz, DP, Patterson, TA, Johnson, LB, Zavosh, A, Israel, PA, Szot, P. Dopamine transporter mRNA is increased in the CNS of Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rats. Brain Res Bull 1998, 46: 199–202. 141 Geiger, BM, Behr, GG, Frank, LE, Caldera‐Siu, AD, Beinfeld, MC. Evidence for defective mesolimbic dopamine exocytosis in obesity‐prone rats. FASEB J 2008, 22: 2740–2746. 142 Meguid, MM, Fetissov, SO, Miyata, G, Torelli, GF. Feeding pattern in obese Zucker rats after dopaminergic and serotonergic LHA grafts. Neuroreport 1999, 10: 1049–1053. 143 Yang, ZJ, Meguid, MM. LHA dopaminergic activity in obese and lean Zucker rats. Neuroreport 1995, 6: 1191–1194. 144 Orosco, M, Rouch, C, Meile, MJ, Nicolaidis, S. Spontaneous feeding‐related monoamine changes in rostromedial hypothalamus of the obese Zucker rat: a microdialysis study. Physiol Behav 1995, 57: 1103–1106. 145 Orosco, M, Rouch, C, Nicolaidis, S. Rostromedial hypothalamic monoamine changes in response to intravenous infusions of insulin and glucose in freely feeding obese Zucker rats: a microdialysis study. Appetite 1996, 26: 1–20. 146 Lemierre, S, Rouch, C, Nicolaidis, S, Orosco, M. Combined effect of obesity and aging on feeding‐induced monoamine release in the rostromedial hypothalamus of the Zucker rat. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998, 22: 993–999. 147 Fuemmeler, BF, Agurs‐Collins, TD, McClernon, FJ, Kollins, SH, Kail, ME, et al. Genes implicated in serotonergic and dopaminergic functioning predict BMI categories. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008, 16: 348–355. 148 Comings, DE, Gade, R, MacMurray, JP, Muhleman, D, Peters, WR. Genetic variants of the human obesity (OB) gene: association with body mass index in young women, psychiatric symptoms, and interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene. Mol Psychiatry 1996, 1: 325–335. 149 Noble, EP, Noble, RE, Ritchie, T, Syndulko, K, Bohlman, MC, et al. D2 dopamine receptor gene and obesity. Int J Eat Disord 1994, 15: 205–217. 150 Wu, X, Hudmon, KS, Detry, MA, Chamberlain, RM, Spitz, MR. D2 dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms among African‐Americans and Mexican‐Americans: a lung cancer case‐control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000, 9: 1021–1026. 151 Thomas, GN, Critchley, JA, Tomlinson, B, Cockram, CS, Chan, JC. Relationships between the taqI polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor and blood pressure in hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic Chinese subjects. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2001, 55: 605–611. 152 Morton, LM, Wang, SS, Bergen, AW, Chatterjee, N, Kvale, P, et al. DRD2 genetic variation in relation to smoking and obesity in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2006, 16: 901–910. 153 Stice, E, Spoor, S, Bohon, C, Small, DM. Relation between obesity and blunted striatal response to food is moderated by TaqIA A1 allele. Science 2008, 322: 449–452. 154 Guo, G, North, KE, Gorden‐Larsen, P, Bulik, CM, Choi, S. Body mass, DRD4, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and family socioeconomic status: the add health study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007, 15: 1199–1206. 155 Kaplan, AS, Levitan, RD, Yilmaz, Z, Davis, C, Tharmalingam, S, et al. A DRD4/BDNF gene‐gene interaction associated with maximum BMI in women with bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord 2008, 41: 22–28. 156 Need, AC, Ahmadi, KR, Spector, TD, Goldstein, DB. Obesity is associated with genetic variants that alter dopamine availability. Ann Hum Genet 2006, 70: 293–303. 157 Davis, CA, Levitan, RD, Reid, C, Carter, JC, Kaplan, AS, et al. Dopamine for “wanting” and opioids for “liking”: a comparison of obese adults with and without binge eating. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009, 17: 1220–1225. 158 Wang, GJ, Volkow, ND, Logan, J, Pappas, NR, Wong, CT, et al. Brain dopamine and obesity. Lancet 2001, 357: 354–357. 159 Wang, GJ, Volkow, ND, Telang, F, Jayne, M, Ma, J, et al. Exposure to appetitive food stimuli markedly activates the human brain. Neuroimage 2004, 21: 1790–1797. 160 Volkow, ND, Wang, GJ, Telang, F, Fowler, JS, Thanos, PK, et al. Low dopamine striatal D2 receptors are associated with prefrontal metabolism in obese subjects: possible contributing factors. Neuroimage 2008, 42: 1537–1543. 161 Volkow, ND, Wise, RA. How can drug addiction help us understand obesity? Nat Neurosci 2005, 8: 555–560. 162 Trinko, R, Sears, RM, Guarnieri, DJ, DiLeone, RJ. Neural mechanisms underlying obesity and drug addiction. Physiol Behav 2007, 91: 499–505. 163 Avena, NM, Rada, P, Hoebel, BG. Sugar and fat bingeing have notable differences in addictive‐like behavior. J Nutr 2009, 139: 623–628. 164 Carr, KD. Chronic food restriction: enhancing effects on drug reward and striatal cell signaling. Physiol Behav 2007, 91: 459–472. 165 Di Chiara, G, Bassareo, V, Fenu, S, De Luca, MA, Spina, L, et al. Dopamine and drug addiction: the nucleus accumbens shell connection. Neuropharmacology 2004, 47( suppl 1): 227–241. 166 Di Chiara, G, Tanda, G, Cadoni, C, Acquas, E, Bassareo, V, Carboni, E. Homologies and differences in the action of drugs of abuse and a conventional reinforcer (food) on dopamine transmission: an interpretative framework of the mechanism of drug dependence. Adv Pharmacol 1998, 42: 983–987. 167 Davis, JF, Tracy, AL, Schurdak, JD, Tschop, MH, Lipton, JW, et al. Exposure to elevated levels of dietary fat attenuates psychostimulant reward and mesolimbic dopamine turnover in the rat. Behav Neurosci 2008, 122: 1257–1263. 168 Huang, XF, Yu, Y, Zavitsanou, K, Han, M, Storlien, L. Differential expression of dopamine D2 and D4 receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in mice prone, or resistant, to chronic high‐fat diet‐induced obesity. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005, 135: 150–161. 169 Huang, XF, Zavitsanou, K, Huang, X, Yu, Y, Wang, H, et al. Dopamine transporter and D2 receptor binding densities in mice prone or resistant to chronic high fat diet‐induced obesity. Behav Brain Res 2006, 175: 415–419. 170 South, T, Huang, XF. High‐fat diet exposure increases dopamine D2 receptor and decreases dopamine transporter receptor binding density in the nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen of mice. Neurochem Res 2008, 33: 598–605. 171 Li, Y, South, T, Han, M, Chen, J, Wang, R, et al. High‐fat diet decreases tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression irrespective of obesity susceptibility in mice. Brain Res 2009, 1268: 181–189. 172 Teegarden, SL, Nestler, EJ, Bale, TL. Delta FosB‐mediated alterations in dopamine signaling are normalized by a palatable high‐fat diet. Biol Psychiatry 2008, 64: 941–950. 173 Avena, NM, Hoebel, BG. A diet promoting sugar dependency causes behavioral cross‐sensitization to a low dose of amphetamine. Neuroscience 2003, 122: 17–20. 174 Gosnell, BA. Sucrose intake enhances behavioral sensitization produced by cocaine. Brain Res 2005, 1031: 194–201. 175 Avena, NM, Carrillo, CA, Needham, L, Leibowitz, SF, Hoebel, BG. Sugar‐dependent rats show enhanced intake of unsweetened ethanol. Alcohol 2004, 34: 203–209. 176 Muhlhausler, BS. Programming of the appetite‐regulating neural network: a link between maternal overnutrition and the programming of obesity? J Neuroendocrinol 2007, 19: 67–72. 177 Huang, JS, Lee, TA, Lu, MC. Prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity. Matern Child Health J 2007, 11: 461–473. 178 Junien, C, Nathanielsz, P. Report on the IASO Stock Conference 2006: early and lifelong environmental epigenomic programming of metabolic syndrome, obesity and type II diabetes. Obes Rev 2007, 8: 487–502. 179 Hebebrand, J, Hinney, A. Environmental and genetic risk factors in obesity. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2009, 18: 83–94. 180 Gluckman, PD, Hanson, MA, Pinal, C. The developmental origins of adult disease. Matern Child Nutr 2005, 1: 130–141. 181 Michels, KB. Early life predictors of chronic disease. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2003, 12: 157–161. 182 Nicolaidis, S. Prenatal imprinting of postnatal specific appetites and feeding behavior. Metabolism 2008, 57( suppl 2): S22–S26. 183 Djiane, J, Attig, L. Role of leptin during perinatal metabolic programming and obesity. J Physiol Pharmacol 2008, 59( suppl 1): 55–63. 184 Symonds, ME, Gardner, DS. Experimental evidence for early nutritional programming of later health in animals. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2006, 9: 278–283. 185 Tang, WY, Ho, SM. Epigenetic reprogramming and imprinting in origins of disease. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2007, 8: 173–182. 186 Oliveira, E, Moura, EG, Santos‐Silva, AP, Fagundes, AT, Rios, AS, et al. Short‐ and long‐term effects of maternal nicotine exposure during lactation on body adiposity, lipid profile, and thyroid function of rat offspring. J Endocrinol 2009, 202: 397–405. 187 Fernandez‐Twinn, DS, Ozanne, SE. Mechanisms by which poor early growth programs type‐2 diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Physiol Behav 2006, 88: 234–243. 188 Kirk, SL, Samuelsson, AM, Argenton, M, Dhonye, H, Kalamatianos, T, et al. Maternal obesity induced by diet in rats permanently influences central processes regulating food intake in offspring. PLoS ONE 2009, 4( N): e5870. 189 Tamashiro, KL, Terrillion, CE, Hyun, J, Koenig, JI, Moran, TH. Prenatal stress or high‐fat diet increases susceptibility to diet‐induced obesity in rat offspring. Diabetes 2009, 58: 1116–1125. 190 Nilsson, C, Larsson, BM, Jennische, E, Eriksson, E, Bjorntorp, P, et al. Maternal endotoxemia results in obesity and insulin resistance in adult male offspring. Endocrinology 2001, 142: 2622–2630. 191 Ptak, C, Petronis, A. Epigenetics and complex disease: from etiology to new therapeutics. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2008, 48: 257–276. 192 Mehler, MF: Epigenetics and the nervous system. Ann Neurol 2008, 64: 602–617. 193 Jiang, Y, Langley, B, Lubin, FD, Renthal, W, Wood, MA, et al. Epigenetics in the nervous system. J Neurosci 2008, 28: 11753–11759. 194 Sinclair, KD, Allegrucci, C, Singh, R, Gardner, DS, Sebastian, S, et al. DNA methylation, insulin resistance, and blood pressure in offspring determined by maternal periconceptional B vitamin and methionine status. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007, 104: 19351–19356. 195 Bogdarina, I, Murphy, HC, Burns, SP, Clark, AJ. Investigation of the role of epigenetic modification of the rat glucokinase gene in fetal programming. Life Sci 2004, 74: 1407–1415. 196 Bogdarina, I, Welham, S, King, PJ, Burns, SP, Clark, AJ. Epigenetic modification of the renin‐angiotensin system in the fetal programming of hypertension. Circ Res 2007, 100: 520–526. 197 Stoger, R. Epigenetics and obesity. Pharmacogenomics 2008, 9: 1851–1860. 198 Honma, K, Mochizuki, K, Goda, T. Carbohydrate/fat ratio in the diet alters histone acetylation on the sucrase‐isomaltase gene and its expression in mouse small intestine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007, 357: 1124–1129. 199 Simerly, RB. Hypothalamic substrates of metabolic imprinting. Physiol Behav 2008, 94: 79–89. 200 Mokler, DJ, Torres, OI, Galler, JR, Morgane, PJ. Stress‐induced changes in extracellular dopamine and serotonin in the medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of prenatally malnourished rats. Brain Res 2007, 1148: 226–233. 201 Valdomero, A, Isoardi, NA, Orsingher, OA, Cuadra, GR. Pharmacological reactivity to cocaine in adult rats undernourished at perinatal age: behavioral and neurochemical correlates. Neuropharmacology 2005, 48: 538–546. 202 Valdomero, A, Bussolino, DF, Orsingher, OA, Cuadra, GR. Perinatal protein malnutrition enhances rewarding cocaine properties in adult rats. Neuroscience 2006, 137: 221–229. 203 Kehoe, P, Mallinson, K, Bronzino, J, McCormick, CM. Effects of prenatal protein malnutrition and neonatal stress on CNS responsiveness. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 2001, 132: 23–31. 204 Naef, L, Srivastava, L, Gratton, A, Hendrickson, H, Owens, SM, et al. Maternal high fat diet during the perinatal period alters mesocorticolimbic dopamine in the adult rat offspring: reduction in the behavioral responses to repeated amphetamine administration. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2008, 197: 83–94. 205 Kuperstein, F, Eilam, R, Yavin, E. Altered expression of key dopaminergic regulatory proteins in the postnatal brain following perinatal n‐3 fatty acid dietary deficiency. J Neurochem 2008, 106: 662–671. 206 Unger, EL, Paul, T, Murray‐Kolb, LE, Felt, B, Jones, BC, et al. Early iron deficiency alters sensorimotor development and brain monoamines in rats. J Nutr 2007, 137: 118–124. 207 Szczerbak, G, Nowak, P, Kostrzewa, RM, Brus, R. Maternal lead exposure produces long‐term enhancement of dopaminergic reactivity in rat offspring. Neurochem Res 2007, 32: 1791–1798. 208 Zhou, R, Zhang, Z, Zhu, Y, Chen, L, Sokabe, M, et al. Deficits in development of synaptic plasticity in rat dorsal striatum following prenatal and neonatal exposure to low‐dose bisphenol A. Neuroscience 2009, 159: 161–171. 209 Narita, M, Miyagawa, K, Mizuo, K, Yoshida, T, Suzuki, T. Changes in central dopaminergic systems and morphine reward by prenatal and neonatal exposure to bisphenol‐A in mice: evidence for the importance of exposure period. Addict Biol 2007, 12: 167–172. 210 Yokota, S, Mizuo, K, Moriya, N, Oshio, S, Sugawara, I, et al. Effect of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust on dopaminergic system in mice. Neurosci Lett 2009, 449: 38–41. 211 Stanwood, GD, Levitt, P. Prenatal exposure to cocaine produces unique developmental and long‐term adaptive changes in dopamine D1 receptor activity and subcellular distribution. J Neurosci 2007, 27: 152–157. 212 Tropea, TF, Guerriero, RM, Willuhn, I, Unterwald, EM, Ehrlich, ME, et al. Augmented D1 dopamine receptor signaling and immediate‐early gene induction in adult striatum after prenatal cocaine. Biol Psychiatry 2008, 63: 1066–1074. 213 Strackx, E, Van den Hove, DL, Steinbusch, HP, Steinbusch, HW, Vles, JS, et al. A combined behavioral and morphological study on the effects of fetal asphyxia on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in adult rats. Exp Neurol 2008, 211: 413–422. 214 Son, GH, Chung, S, Geum, D, Kang, SS, Choi, WS, et al. Hyperactivity and alteration of the midbrain dopaminergic system in maternally stressed male mice offspring. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007, 352: 823–829. 215 Silvagni, A, Barros, VG, Mura, C, Antonelli, MC, Carboni, E. Prenatal restraint stress differentially modifies basal and stimulated dopamine and noradrenaline release in the nucleus accumbens shell: an ‘in vivo’ microdialysis study in adolescent and young adult rats. Eur J Neurosci 2008, 28: 744–758. 216 Kippin, TE, Szumlinski, KK, Kapasova, Z, Rezner, B, See, RE. Prenatal stress enhances responsiveness to cocaine. Neuropsychopharmacology 2008, 33: 769–782. 217 McArthur, S, McHale, E, Gillies, GE. The size and distribution of midbrain dopaminergic populations are permanently altered by perinatal glucocorticoid exposure in a sex‐ region‐ and time‐specific manner. Neuropsychopharmacology 2007, 32: 1462–1476. 218 Wang, S, Yan, JY, Lo, YK, Carvey, PM, Ling, Z. Dopaminergic and serotoninergic deficiencies in young adult rats prenatally exposed to the bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Brain Res 2009, 1265: 196–204. 219 Stice, E, Spoor, S, Ng, J, Zald, DH. Relation of obesity to consummatory and anticipatory food reward. Physiol Behav 2009, 97: 551–560.