1 Agrawala, S, Fankhauser, S, eds. Economic Aspects of Adaptation to Climate Change: Costs, Benefits and Policy Instruments
. Paris: OECD
2 Eriksen, S, Aldunce, P, Bahinipati, S, Bahinipati, C, Martins, R, Molefe, J, Nhemachena, C, O`Brien, K, Olorunfemi, F, Park, J , et al. When not every response to climate change is a good one: identifying principles for sustainable adaptation. Clim Dev 2011, 3:7–20.
3 Brown, K. Sustainable adaptation: an oxymoron. Clim Dev 2011, 3:21–31.
4 Turner, WR, Bradley, BA, Estes, LD, Hole, DG, Oppenheimer, M, Wilcove, DS. Climate change: helping nature survive the human response. Conserv Lett 2010, 3:304–312.
5 Folke, C. Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social‐ecological systems analyses. Global Environ Change 2006, 16:253–267.
6 Nelson, DR, Adger, WN, Brown, K. Adaptation to environmental change: contributions of a resilience framework. Ann Rev Environ Resour 2007, 32:395–419.
7 Leichenko, RM, O`Brien, KL. Environmental Change and Globalization: Double Exposures
. Oxford: Oxford University Press
8 Milligan, J, O`Riordan, T, Nicholson‐Cole, SA, Watkinson, AR. Nature conservation for sustainable shorelines: lessons from seeking to involve the public. Land Use Policy 2009, 26:203–213.
9 See, for example, Biesbroek, GR, Swart, RJ, Carter, TR, Cowan, C, Henrichs, T, Mela, H, Morecroft, MD, Rey, D. Europe adapts to climate change: comparing national adaptation strategies. Global Environ Change 2010, 20:440–450.
10 Tompkins, EL, Adger, WN, Boyd, E, Nicholson‐Cole, S, Weatherhead, K, Arnell, NW. Observed adaptation to climate change: UK evidence of transition to a well‐adapting society. Global Environ Change 2010, 20:627–635.
11 Berrang‐Ford, L, Ford, JD, Paterson, J. Are we adapting to climate change? Global Environ Change 2011, 21:25–33.
12 Pielke, R, Prins, G, Rayner, S, Sarewitz, D. Climate change 2007: lifting the taboo on adaptation. Nature 2007, 445:597–598.
13 Nelson, DR. Adaptation and resilience: responding to a changing climate. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Change 2011, 2:113–120.
14 Carpenter, S, Walker, B, Anderies, JM, Abel, N. From metaphor to measurement: resilience of what to what? Ecosystems 2001, 4:765–781.
15 Liu, J, Dietz, T, Carpenter, SR, Folke, C, Alberti, M, Redman, CL, Schneider, SH, Ostrom, E, Pell, AN, Lubchenco, J, et al. Coupled human and natural systems. Ambio 2007, 36:639–649.
16 Lenton, TM. Early warning of climate tipping points Nature Clim Change 2011, 1:201–209.
17 Carpenter, SR, Brock, WA. Rising variance: a leading indicator of ecological transition. Ecol Lett 2006, 9:311–318.
18 Tol, R, Yohe, G. The weakest link hypothesis for adaptive capacity: an empirical test. Global Environ Change 2007, 17:218–227.
19 Folke, C, Hahn, T, Olsson, P, Norberg, J. Adaptive governance of social–ecological systems. Ann Rev Environ Resour 2005, 30:441–473.
20 Brown, K. Innovations for conservation and development. Geogr J 2002, 168:6–17.
21 Berkes, F. Understanding uncertainty and reducing vulnerability: lessons from resilience thinking. Natural Hazards 2007, 41:283–295.
22 Newman, LL, Dale, A. Network structure, diversity, and proactive resilience building. Ecol Soc
2005, 10, 1:r2. Available at: www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/iss1/resp2/2005
23 Putnam, RD, E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and community in the twenty‐first century. Scand Polit Stud 2007, 30:137–174.
24 Ostrom, E. Understanding Institutional Diversity
. Princeton: Princeton University Press
25 McIntosh, RJ, Tainter, JA, McIntosh, SK. %22Climate history and human action.%22 In: McIntosh, RJ, Tainter, JA, McIntosh, SK, eds. The Way the Wind Blows: Climate, History, and Human Action
. New York: Columbia University Press
; 2000, 1–42.
26 Farigone, J, Hill, J, Tilman, D, Polasky, S, Hawthorne, P. Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt. Science 2008, 319:1235–1238.
27 Hill, J, Nelson, E, Tilman, D, Polasky, S, Tiffany, D. Environmental, economic and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. PNAS 2006, 103:11206–11210.
28 Solomon, B. Biofuels and sustainability. Ann New York Acad Sci 2010, 1185:119–134.
29 Nelson, DR, Finan, TJ. Praying for drought: persistent vulnerability and the politics of patronage in Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Am Anthropol 2009, 111:302–316.
30 Sauchyn, DJ, Barrow, E, Hopkinson, R, Leavitt, P. Aridity on the Canadian Plains: Future Trends and Past Variability. Prairie Adaptation Research Collaborative Summary Document No. 03‐01, 2003. Available at: http://www.parc.ca/research_summaries.htm
. (Accessed July 14, 2011).
31 Tarnoczi, TJ, Berkes, F. Sources of information for farmers` adaptation practices in Canada`s Prairie agro‐ecosystem. Clim Change 2010, 98:299–305.
32 Tompkins, EL. Planning for climate change in small islands: insights from national hurricane preparedness in the Cayman Islands. Global Environ Change 2005, 15:139–143.
33 Parkins, JR, MacKendrick, NA. Assessing community vulnerability: a study of the mountain pine beetle outbreak in British Columbia, Canada. Global Environ Change 2007, 17:460–471.
34 Ruitenbeek, HJ, Cartier, CM. A Practical Approach to the Use of Environmental Economic Valuation in Socio‐Economic and Environmental Assessment Decision‐making Frameworks in BC
. Victoria: BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands
35 Galvin, KA. %22Responses of pastoralists to land fragmentation: social capital, connectivity and resilience.%22 In: Galvin, KA, Reid, RS, Behnke, RH , Jr. Hobbs, NT, eds. Fragmentation in Semi‐arid and Arid Landscapes: Consequences for Human and Natural Systems
. Dordrecht: Springer
; 2007, 369–390.
36 Thornton, PK, Burnsilver, SB, Boone, RB, Galvin, KA. Modelling the impacts of group ranch subdivision on agro‐pastoral households in Kajiado, Kenya. Agric Syst 2006, 87:331–356.
37 Little, PD, Mahmoud, H, Coppock, DL. When deserts flood: risk management and climatic processes among east African pastoralists. Clim Res 2001, 19:149–159.
38 Abers, RN. Organizing for governance: Building collaboration in Brazilian river basins. World Dev 2007, 35:1450–1463.
39 Lemos, MC, de Oliveira, JLF. Can water reform survive politics? Institutional change and river basin management in Ceará, Northeast Brazil. World Dev 2004, 32:2121–2137.
40 Few, R, Brown, K, Tompkins, EL. Climate change and coastal management decisions: insights from Christchurch Bay, UK. Coast Manage 2007, 35: 255–270.
41 Tompkins, EL, Few, R, Brown, K. Scenario‐based stakeholder engagement: incorporating stakeholders preferences into coastal planning for climate change. J Environ Manage 2008, 88:1580–1592.
42 Goulden, M. Livelihood diversification, social capital and resilience to climate variability amongst natural resource dependent societies in Uganda. PhD Thesis, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 2006.
43 Conway, D, Allison, E, Felstead, R, Goulden, M. Rainfall variability in East Africa: implications for natural resources management and livelihoods. Phil Trans R Soc A 2005, 363:49–54.