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WIREs Clim Change
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Climate change in Argentina: trends, projections, impacts and adaptation

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In most of Argentina, the warming since 1901 was a little lower than the global average, although with strong trends in temperature extremes and in heat waves during the most recent decades. There was a remarkable increase in precipitation over most of subtropical Argentina, especially since 1960. This has favored agriculture yields and the extension of crop lands into semiarid regions, but this increase also came with more frequent heavy rainfalls and consequent flooding of rural and urban areas. Since the early 1970s, the main rivers of the Plata Basin have increased their mean flows, but this was attributable not only to increased precipitation, but also to land use changes. In contrast, over the Andes Mountains, reduced rainfall and increased temperature has led to glaciers receding and reduced river flows. Climate projections for the first half of this century maintain observed trends and raise additional concerns that in most cases can be dealt with timely adaptation policies. However, by the end of this century, under an extreme emissions scenario, the projected warming reaches 3.5°C in the north of the country with respect to present‐day conditions. There is insufficient knowledge to assume that this warming would not create severe damages to the people and the economy of Argentina. Because of the damages and casualties that heat waves and extreme precipitation events are already producing, the first and most urgent adaptation required is to reinforce early warning systems and contingency planning to cope with climatic extremes and their consequences on health. WIREs Clim Change 2015, 6:151–169. doi: 10.1002/wcc.316

Argentina: regions, major cities, and rivers.
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Buenos Aires Province and the Plata River.
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CMIP5 multi‐model ensemble mean of annual precipitation (mm day−1) for the near‐term (2016–2035) left, and long‐term (2081–2100) right relative to 1986–2005 under RCP4.5 top and RCP8.5 bottom.
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CMIP5 multi‐model ensemble mean of projected changes (°C) in annual temperature for the near‐term (2016–2035) left, and long‐term (2081–2100) right relative to 1986–2005 under RCP4.5 top and RCP8.5 bottom.
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Rio San Juan hydrograph for the periods 1909–1919 and 1993–2003.
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Photographs of the Glaciar del Humo, Atuel River basin. The upper picture was taken by W. Von Fischer in 1914 and the bottom one by D. Cobos in 1982.
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Number of monthly flow anomalies at Corrientes (Paraná River) and Paso de los Libres (Uruguay River) higher than at least two times the standard deviation of the corresponding month.
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Number of days per decade with precipitation over 100 mm in the city of Buenos Aires.
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End‐to‐end change in annual precipitation through the 1960–2000 period (mm). Green (yellow) positive (negative) changes.
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Precipitation change in subtropical eastern and central Argentina; isohyets in mm; 1950–1969 in black and 1980–1999 in red.
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