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WIREs Clim Change
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Integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation in agriculture and forestry: opportunities and trade‐offs

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Although many activities can jointly contribute to the climate change strategies of adaptation and mitigation, climate policies have generally treated these strategies separately. In recent years, there has been a growing interest shown by practitioners in agriculture, forestry, and landscape management in the links between the two strategies. This review explores the opportunities and trade‐offs when managing landscapes for both climate change mitigation and adaptation; different conceptualizations of the links between adaptation and mitigation are highlighted. Under a first conceptualization of ‘joint outcomes,’ several reviewed studies analyze how activities without climatic objectives deliver joint adaptation and mitigation outcomes. In a second conceptualization of ‘unintended side effects,’ the focus is on how activities aimed at only one climate objective—either adaptation or mitigation—can deliver outcomes for the other objective. A third conceptualization of ‘joint objectives’ highlights that associating both adaptation and mitigation objectives in a climate‐related activity can influence its outcomes because of multiple possible interactions. The review reveals a diversity of reasons for mainstreaming adaptation and mitigation separately or jointly in landscape management. The three broad conceptualizations of the links between adaptation and mitigation suggest different implications for climate policy mainstreaming and integration. WIREs Clim Change 2015, 6:585–598. doi: 10.1002/wcc.357

Conceptual framework of the integration of adaptation and mitigation into landscape management. Landscapes deliver services that contribute to the adaptation of society (1); society manages landscapes for adapting agriculture and ecosystems (2); and landscapes contribute to climate change mitigation through enhanced carbon storage and reduced greenhouse gas emissions (3).
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Network representation of the linkages (either positive or negative) between activities and climate outcomes in the reviewed papers on both adaptation and mitigation. Edges are wider and pairs of nodes are closer when linkages are more frequent in the reviewed papers. Nodes are larger when the activities or the outcomes are more frequent in the papers (numbers show the frequency in percentage of analyzed cases). Outcomes are related to the contribution of landscape to climate change mitigation (Miti) and to people's adaptation (SocA), and the contribution of landscape management activities to improve ecosystem resilience (EcoA) and agricultural resilience (AgrA). Activities are related to agriculture (Agricu), agroforestry (Agrofo), conservation (Conser), bioenergy and biomaterials (Energy), fire management (FireMa), forestry in general (Forest), forest management (ForMan), management of multiple land uses in the landscape (Landsc), livestock and pasture (Livest), reforestation (Refore), restoration (Restor), soil management (SoilMa), and wetland management (Wetlan).
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Three main conceptualizations of the relationships between adaptation and mitigation. (a) Joint outcomes (activities with nonclimatic primary objectives deliver joint adaptation and mitigation outcomes); (b) Unintended side effects (activities aimed at only one climate objective—either adaptation or mitigation—also deliver outcomes for the other objective); (c) Joint objectives (associating both adaptation and mitigation objectives leads to interactions that strengthen or weaken outcomes).
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The Carbon Economy and Climate Mitigation > Benefits of Mitigation
Integrated Assessment of Climate Change > Methods of Integrated Assessment of Climate Change

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