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WIREs Clim Change
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Beyond special circumstances: climate change policy in Turkey 1992–2015

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The contours of Turkey's climate policy have remained almost intact over the past two decades. Being an Annex I party without any mitigation commitments, Turkey maintains a peculiar position under UNFCCC. Subsequent to 12 years of delay in signing both the Framework Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, Turkey had the highest rate of increase in greenhouse gas emissions among the Annex I countries with 110.4% upsurge in the period 1990 and 2013. Yet with the new climate regime now in place, the country's mitigation pledges fall short of expectations both in terms of realistic projections and its ambition to step up in the post‐2020 period. Climate policies in Turkey, an EU candidate and OECD founding member with a growing economy, remain under‐investigated. Although the country has a wide range of policies and institutions in place, it shows limited progress in addressing climate change. Based on evidence from the literature, we observe that climate policies operationalize in Turkey insofar as they do not directly confront developmental ambitions, leaving policy diffusion with limited success. To provide a historic overview, we focus on climate policy development, actors, processes, and contemporary trends. Evidence shows that these are highly ridden with the politics of special circumstances: a notion that Turkey employs to refrain from bindings commitments. In order to go beyond special circumstances discourse, we argue the need for a bold policy shift in Turkey, a country subject to adverse impacts of climate change and high‐carbon lock‐in risk due to development policy preferences. WIREs Clim Change 2016, 7:448–460. doi: 10.1002/wcc.390

Turkey's total final energy consumption. Data obtained from International Energy Agency database.
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Turkey's GDP (constant 2005 USD). Data obtained from the World Bank, World Development Indicators database.
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Sectorial distribution of emissions in Turkey in 2013. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2015 TUIK)
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Greenhouse gas emissions data (CO2 equivalent) for 1990–2013. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2015 TUIK)
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Policy and Governance > National Climate Change Policy

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