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WIREs Clim Change
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Low‐carbon development pathways in Brazil and ‘Climate Clubs’

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Brazil occupies a unique position among the major greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting countries due to its low per‐capita energy‐related GHG emissions (2.4 tons CO2 in 2014), attributable to abundant clean energy sources. Recently, deforestation in Brazil has slowed considerably, to the point where forestry has ceased to be the major source of emissions. Brazil has reduced its overall GHG emissions by 41% from 2005 to 2012, and its total GHG emissions per capita decreased from a high in 2004 of 14.4 tCO2e to an estimated 6.5 tCO2e in 2012. Brazil faces the challenge of building upon its historically low energy‐related GHG emission levels through new decarbonization strategies, while pursuing higher living standards for its population. There is a huge potential to further reduce national GHG emissions through the implementation of a wide spectrum of mitigation measures. While several observers from the scientific community have a different view, Brazilian government considers that the country has been playing both a pioneer and a leader role in ambitious climate action, including the submission of a quite ambitious intended nationally determined contribution, and a constructive role played in COP21, joining the High Ambition club at the end of the negotiations. Several motivations exist for Brazil joining other ‘climate clubs’ focusing on innovative financial mechanisms and sustainable energy and forestry technologies. WIREs Clim Change 2017, 8:e439. doi: 10.1002/wcc.439

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