1 IPCC. Climate Change 2007
—Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
. Cambridge, United Kingdom %26 New York, NY, USA
: Cambridge University Press
2 Gillett, NP, Weaver, AJ, Zwiers, FW, Flannigan, MD. Detecting the effect of climate change on Canadian forest fires. Geophys Res Lett 2004, 31.
3 Williams, AAJ, Karoly, DJ, Tapper, N. The sensitivity of Australian fire danger to climate change. Clim Change 2001, 49:171–191.
4 Pausas, JG. Changes in fire and climate in the eastern Iberian Peninsula (Mediterranean basin). Clim Change 2004, 63:337–350.
5 Cary, GJ. %22Importance of a changing climate for fire regimes in Australia.%22 In: Gill, AM, Bradstock, RA, Williams, J, eds. Flammable Australia : the Fire Regimes and Biodiverstiy of a Continent
. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press
; 2002, 26–49.
6 Flannigan, M, Stocks, B, Turetsky, M, Wotton, M. Impacts of climate change on fire activity and fire management in the circumboreal forest. Glob Change Biol 2009, 15:549–560.
7 Johnson, EA, Morin, H, Miyanishi, K, Gagnon, R, Greene, DF. %22A process approach to understanding disturbance and forest dynamics for sustainable forestry.%22 In: Adamowicz, V, Burton, P, Messier, C, Smith, D, eds. Towards Sustainable Management of the Boreal Forest
. Ottawa, ON: Ch. 8. NRC Press
; 2003, 261–306.
8 Johnson, EA. Fire and Vegetation Dynamics: Studies from the North American boreal forest. 1st ed, vol. 1. Cambridge University Press
9 Quintiere, JG. Canadian mass fire experiment, 1989. J Fire Prot Eng 1993, 5:67–78. doi:10. 1177/1042391 59300500203.
10 Kurz, WA, Apps, MJ. A 70‐year retrospective analysis of carbon fluxes in the Canadian forest sector. Ecol Appl 1999, 9:526–547.
11 Bowman, D, Balch, JK, Artaxo, P, Bond, WJ, Carlson, JM, Cochrane, MA, D`Antonio, CM, DeFries, RS, Doyle, JC, Harrison, SP, et al. Fire in the Earth System. Science 2009, 324:481–484.
12 Ramanathan, V, Carmichael, G. Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nature Geoscience 2008, 1:221–227.
13 Warren, SG, Wiscombe, WJ. A model for the spectral albedo of snow. II: Snow containing atmospheric aerosols. J Atmos Sci 1980, doi:10.1175/1520‐0469(1980) 037<2734:AMFTSA>2.0.CO;2.37:2734–2745.
14 Harden, JW, Trumbore, SE, Stocks, BJ, Hirsch, A, Gower, ST, O`Neill, KP, Kasischke, ES. The role of fire in the boreal carbon budget. Glob Change Biol 2000, 6:174–184.
15 Randerson, JT, Liu, H, Flanner, MG, Chambers, SD, Jin, Y, Hess, PG, Pfister, G, Mack, MC, Treseder, KK, Welp, LR, et al. The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming. Science 2006, 314:1130–1132.
16 Archer, S, Schimel, DS, Holland, EA. Mechanisms of shrubland expansion—Land‐use, climate or CO2. Clim Change 1995, 29:91–99.
17 Roques, KG, O`Connor, TG, Watkinson, AR. Dynamics of shrub encroachment in an African savanna: relative influences of fire, herbivory, rainfall and density dependence. J Appl Ecol 2001, 38:268–280.
18 Cox, G. Combustion Fundamentals of Fire. London, United Kingdom: Academic Press
19 Drysdale, D. An Introduction to Fire Dynamics. 2nd ed.
New York, NY, USA: John Wiley %26 Sons
20 Quintiere, JG. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena. vol. 1 New York, NY, USA: John Wiley %26 Sons
21 Brown, AA, Davis, KP. Forest Fire Control and Use. 2nd ed.
New York, NY, USA: McGraw‐Hill
22 Siau, JF. Transport Processes in Wood. New York, NY, USA: Springer‐Verlag
23 Skaar, C. Wood Water Relations. New York, NY, USA: Springer‐Verlag
24 Nelson, RM Jr. %22Water relations of forest fuels.%22 In: Johnson, EA, Miyanishi, K, eds. Forest Fires: Behavior and Ecological Effects
. New York, NY, USA: Academic Press
; 2001, 79–149.
25 Dixon, HH, Joly, J. On the ascent of sap. Ann Bot 1894, 8:468–470.
26 Tyree, MT, Zimmermann, MH. Xylem Structure and the Ascent of Sap. 2nd ed.
New York, NY, USA: Springer
27 Nobel, PS. Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology. 3rd ed.
Burlington, MA, USA: Academic Press
28 Zimmermann, MH. Xylem Structure and the Ascent of Sap. 1st ed. New York, NY, USA: Springer
29 Grace, JB. In: Borghetti, M, Grace, JB, eds. Water Transport in Plants Under Climate Change
. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press
; 1993, 51–62.
30 Martin, CE, von Willert, DJ. Leaf epidermal hydathodes and the ecophysiological consequences of foliar water uptake in species of Crassula from the Namib Desert in southern Africa. Plant Biol 2000, 2:229–242.
31 Yates, DJ, Hutley, LB. Foliar uptake of water by wet leaves of Sloanea‐Woollsii, an Australian subtropical rain‐forest tree. Aust J Bot 1995, 43:157–167.
32 Zimmermann, D, Westhoff, M, Zimmermann, G, Gessner, P, Gessner, A, Wegner, LH, Rokitta, M, Ache, P, Schneider, H, Vasquez, JA, et al. Foliar water supply of tall trees: evidence for mucilage‐facilitated moisture uptake from the atmosphere and the impact on pressure bomb measurements. Protoplasma 2007, 232:10–34.
33 Kunkel, KE. In: Johnson, EA, Miyanishi, K, eds. Forest Fires: Behavior and Ecological Effects
. New York, NY, USA: Academic Press
; 2001, 303–350.
34 Incropera, FP, De Witt, DP, Bergman, TL, Lavine, AS. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. 6th ed.
New York, NY, USA: John Wiley %26 Sons
35 Fosberg, MA. Heat and Water Vapor Flux in Conifer Forest Litter and Duff: A Theoretical Model. vol. 1. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
36 Keith, DM, Johnson, EA, Valeo, C. A hillslope forest floor (duff) water budget and the transition to local control. Hydrol Process 2010, 24:2738–2751.
37 Michaletz, ST, Johnson, EA. Foliage influences forced convection heat transfer in conifer branches and buds. New Phytol 2006, 170:87–98.
38 Rothermel, RC. A Mathematical Mocel for Predicting Fire Spread in Wildland Fuels
. vol. 40. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station
39 Brown, JK. %22The unnatural fuel buildup issue.%22 Symposium and Workshop on Wilderness Fire, Missoula, Montana, USA: U.S. Forest Service
40 Bessie, WC, Johnson, EA. The relative importance of fuels and weather on fire behavior in Sub‐Alpine Forests. Ecology 1995, 76:747–762.
41 Schroeder, MJ, Glovinsky, M, Hendricks, V, Hood, F, Hull, M, Jacobson, H, Kirkpatrick, R, Krueger, D, Mallory, L, Oertel, A, et al. Synoptic Weather Types Associated with Critical Fire Weather. vol. 492. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station
42 Finklin, AI. Meteorological factors in the Sundance fire run. USDA Forest Service general technical report PNW INT 6. USDA Forest Service. 1973.
43 Janz, B, Nimchuk, N. The 500 mb chart ‐ a useful fire management tool. In: 8th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology, Detroit, Michigan, Society of American Foresters, Washington, D.C.: 1985, 233–238.
44 Street, RB. %22Drought and synoptic fire climatology of the boreal forest region of the Canadian prairie provinces.%22 In: 8th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology, Detroit, Michigan Society of American Foresters, Washington, D.C.: 1985, 108–112.
45 Flannigan, MD, Harrington, lB. Synoptic weather conditions during the Porter Lake experimental fire project. Climatol Bull 1986, 20:19–40.
46 Johnson, EA, Wowchuk, DR. Wildfires in the southern Canadian rocky‐mountains and their relationship to midtropospheric anomalies. Can J For Res‐Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 1993, 23:1213–1222.
47 Skinner, WR, Stocks, BJ, Martell, DL, Bonsal, B, Shabbar, A. The association between circulation anomalies in the mid‐troposphere and area burned by wildland fire in Canada. Theor Appl Climatol 1999, 63: 89–105.
48 Skinner, WR, Flannigan, MD, Stocks, BJ, Martell, DL, Wotton, BM, Todd, JB, Mason, JA, Logan, KA, Bosch, EM. A 500 hPa synoptic wildland fire climatology for large Canadian forest fires. Theor Appl Climatol 2002, 71:1959–1996.
49 Hessl, AE, McKenzie, D, Schellhaas, R. Drought and Pacific Decadal Oscillation linked to fire occurrence in the inland Pacific Northwest. Ecol Appl 2004, 14:425–442.
50 Pereira, MG, Trigo, RM, da Camara, CC, Pereira, JMC, Leite, SM. Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal. Agric For Meteorol 2005, 129:11–25.
51 Trouet, V, Taylor, AH, Carleton, AM, Skinner, CN. Fire‐climate interactions in forests of the American Pacific coast. Geophys Res Lett 2006, 33.
52 Trigo, RM, Pereira, JMC, Pereira, MG, Mota, B, Calado, TJ, Dacamara, CC, Santo, FE. Atmospheric conditions associated with the exceptional fire season of 2003 in Portugal. Int J Climatol 2006, 26:1741–1757.
53 Kharuk, VI, Ranson, KJ, Dvinskaya, ML. Wildfires dynamic in the larch dominance zone. Geophys Res Lett 2008, 35.
54 Keeley, JE, Fotheringham, CJ. Historic fire regime in Southern California shrublands. Conserv Biol 2001, 15:1536–1548.
55 Bryant, E. Natural Hazards. 2nd ed.
New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press
56 Keeley, JE, Aplet, GH, Christensen, NL, Conard, SG, Johnson, EA, Omi, PN, Peterson, DL, Swetnam, TW. Ecological foundations for fire management in North American forest and shrubland ecosystems. U S Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station General Technical Report PNW‐GTR
; 2009, 1–92.
57 Gedalof, Z, Peterson, DL, Mantua, NJ. Atmospheric, climatic, and ecological controls on extreme wildfire years in the northwestern United States. Ecol Appl 2005, 15:154–174.
58 Westerling, AL, Bryant, BP. Climate change and wildfire in California. Clim Change 2008, 87:S231–S249.
59 Westerling, AL, Hidalgo, HG, Cayan, DR, Swetnam, TW. Warming and earlier spring increase western US forest wildfire activity. Science 2006, 313:940–943. doi:10.1126/science.1128834.
60 Wotton, BM, Flannigan, MD. Length of the fire season in a changing climate. For Chron 1993, 69:187–192.
61 Grissino‐Mayer, HD, Swetnam, TW. Century‐scale climate forcing of fire regimes in the American Southwest. Holocene 2000, 10:213–220.
62 Donnegan, JA, Veblen, TT, Sibold, JS. Climatic and human influences on fire history in Pike National Forest, central Colorado. Can J For Res‐Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 2001, 31:1526–1539.
63 Kitzberger, T, Swetnam, TW, Veblen, TT. Inter‐hemispheric synchrony of forest fires and the El Nino‐Southern Oscillation. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 2001, 10:315–326.
64 Van Wilgen, BW, Govender, N, Biggs, HC, Ntsala, D, Funda, XN. Response of Savanna fire regimes to changing fire‐management policies in a large African National Park. Conserv Biol 2004, 18:1533–1540.
65 Taylor, AH, Beaty, RM. Climatic influences on fire regimes in the northern Sierra Nevada Mountains, Lake Tahoe Basin, Nevada, USA. J Biogeogr 2005, 32:425–438.
66 Littell, JS, McKenzie, D, Peterson, DL, Westerling, AL. Climate and wildfire area burned in western U. S. ecoprovinces, 1916–2003. Ecol Appl 2009, 19:1003–1021.
67 Swetnam, TW. Fire history and climate‐change in Giant Sequoia Groves. Science 1993, 262:885–889.
68 Swetnam, TW, Betancourt, JL. Fire—Southern Oscillation Relations in the Southwestern United‐States. Science 1990, 249:1017–1020.
69 Macias Fauria, M, Johnson, EA. Large‐scale climatic patterns control large lightning fire occurrence in Canada and Alaska forest regions. J Geophys 2006, 111.
70 Kitzberger, T, Brown, PM, Heyerdahl, EK, Swetnam, TW, Veblen, TT. Contingent Pacific‐Atlantic Ocean influence on multicentury wildfire synchrony over western North America. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007, 104:543–548.
71 Wallace, JM, Gutzler, DS. Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon Weather Rev 1981, 109:784–812.
72 Trenberth, KE, Branstator, GW, Karoly, D, Kumar, A, Lau, NC, Ropelewski, C. Progress during TOGA in understanding and modeling global teleconnections associated with tropical sea surface temperatures. J Geophys Res 1998, 103:14291–14324.
73 Simard, AJ, Haines, DA, Main, WA. Relations between El‐Nino Southern Oscillation anomalies and wildland fire activity in the United‐States. Agric For Meteorol 1985, 36:93–104.
74 Veblen, TT, Kitzberger, T, Donnegan, J. Climatic and human influences on fire regimes in ponderosa pine forests in the Colorado Front Range. Ecol Appl 2000, 10:1178–1195.
75 Heyerdahl, EK, Brubaker, LB, Agee, JK. Annual and decadal climate forcing of historical fire regimes in the interior Pacific Northwest, USA. Holocene 2002, 12:597–604.
76 Beckage, B, Platt, WJ, Slocum, MG, Pank, B. Influence of the El Nino Southern Oscillation on fire regimes in the Florida everglades. Ecology 2003, 84:3124–3130.
77 van der Werf, GR, Randerson, JT, Collatz, GJ, Giglio, L, Kasibhatla, PS, Arellano, AF, Olsen, SC, Kasischke, ES. Continental‐scale partitioning of fire emissions during the 1997 to 2001 El Nino/La Nina period. Science 2004, 303:73–76.
78 Schoennagel, T, Veblen, TT, Romme, WH, Sibold, JS, Cook, ER. ENSO and PDO variability affect drought‐induced fire occurrence in Rocky Mountain subalpine forests. Ecol Appl 2005, 15:2000–2014.
79 Trouet, V, Taylor, A, Carleton, A, Skinner, C. Interannual variations in fire weather, fire extent, and synoptic‐scale circulation patterns in northern California and Oregon. Theor Appl Climatol 2009, 95:349–360.
80 Sibold, JS, Veblen, TT. Relationships of subalpine forest fires in the Colorado Front Range with interannual and multidecadal‐scale climatic variation. J Biogeogr 2006, 33:833–842.
81 Collins, BM, Omi, PN, Chapman, PL. Regional relationships between climate and wildfire‐burned area in the Interior West, USA. Can J For Res‐Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 2006, 36:699–709.
82 Macias Fauria, M, Johnson, EA. Climate and wildfires in the North American boreal forest. Philos Trans R Soc B‐Biol Sci 2008, 363:2317–2329.
83 Skinner, WR, Shabbar, A, Flannigan, MD, Logan, K. Large forest fires in Canada and the relationship to global sea surface temperatures. J Geophys Res 2006, 111.
84 Le Goff, H, Flannigan, MD, Bergeron, Y, Girardin, MP. Historical fire regime shifts related to climate teleconnections in the Waswanipi area, central Quebec, Canada. Int J Wildland Fire 2007, 16:607–618.
85 Schoennagel, T, Veblen, TT, Kulakowski, D, Holz, A. Multidecadal climate variability and climate interactions affect subalpine fire occurrence, Western Colorado (USA). Ecology 2007, 88:2891–2902.
86 Dixon, PG, Goodrich, GB, Cooke, WH. Using teleconnections to predict wildfires in Mississippi. Mon Weather Rev 2008, 136:2804–2811.
87 Heyerdahl, EK, McKenzie, D, Daniels, LD, Hessl, AE, Littell, JS, Mantua, NJ. Climate drivers of regionally synchronous fires in the inland Northwest (1651–1900). Int J Wildland Fire 2008, 17:40–49.
88 Goodrick, SL, Hanley, DE. Florida wildfire activity and atmospheric teleconnections. Int J Wildland Fire 2009, 18:476–482.
89 Jupp, TE, Taylor, CM, Balzter, H, George, CT. A statistical model linking Siberian forest fire scars with early summer rainfall anomalies. Geophys Res Lett 2006, 33.
90 Tsonis, AA, Swanson, K, Kravtsov, S. A new dynamical mechanism for major climate shifts. Geophys Res Lett 2007, 34.
91 Swanson, KL, Tsonis, AA. Has the climate recently shifted? Geophys Res Lett 2009, 36.
92 Wang, GL, Swanson, KL, Tsonis, AA. The pacemaker of major climate shifts. Geophys Res Lett 2009, 36.
93 Masters, AM. Changes in forest fire frequency in Kootenay‐National‐Park, Canadian rockies. Can J Bot‐Revue Canadienne De Botanique 1990, 68:1763–1767.
94 Bergeron, Y. The Influence Of Island And Mainland Lakeshore Landscapes On Boreal Forest‐Fire Regimes. Ecology 1991, 72:1980–1992.
95 Johnson, EA, Larsen, CPS. Climatically induced change in fire frequency in the Southern Canadian rockies. Ecology 1991, 72:194–201.
96 Johnson, EA, Miyanishi, K. %22Fire and population dynamics of lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce forests in the southern Canadian Rockies.%22 In: Nakagoshi, N, Golley, FB, eds. Coniferous forest ecology from an international perspective
. The Hague, The Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing
; 1991, 77–91.
97 Reed, WJ. Reconstructing the history of forest fire frequency: identifying hazard rate change points using the Bayes information criterion. Can J Stat‐Revue Canadienne De Statistique 2000, 28:353–365.
98 Weir, JMH, Johnson, EA, Miyanishi, K. Fire frequency and the spatial age mosaic of the mixed‐wood boreal forest in western Canada. Ecol Appl 2000, 10:1162–1177.
99 Bergeron, Y, Gauthier, S, Flannigan, M, Kafka, V. Fire regimes at the transition between mixedwood and coniferous boreal forest in Northwestern Quebec. Ecology 2004, 85:1916–1932.
100 Power, MJ, Marlon, J, Ortiz, N, Bartlein, PJ, Harrison, SP, Mayle, FE, Ballouche, A, Bradshaw, RHW, Carcaillet, C, Cordova, C, et al. Changes in fire regimes since the Last Glacial Maximum: an assessment based on a global synthesis and analysis of charcoal data. Clim Dyn 2008, 30:887–907.
101 Bergeron, Y, Archambault, S. Decreasing frequency of forest fires in the southern boreal zone of Québec and its relation to global warming since the end of the ‘Little Ice Age’. Holocene 1993, 3:255–259. doi:10.1177/095968369300300307.
102 Laird, KR, Cumming, BF, Wunsam, S, Rusak, JA, Oglesby, RJ, Fritz, SC, Leavitt, PR. Lake sediments record large‐scale shifts in moisture regimes across the northern prairies of North America during the past two millennia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003, 100:2483–2488.
103 Girardin, MP, Tardif, J, Flannigan, MD, Wotton, BM, Bergeron, Y. Trends and periodicities in the Canadian Drought Code and their relationships with atmospheric circulation for the southern Canadian boreal forest. Can J For Res‐Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 2004, 34:103–119.
104 Girardin, MP, Tardif, J, Flannigan, MD, Bergeron, Y. Multicentury reconstruction of the Canadian Drought Code from eastern Canada and its relationship with paleoclimatic indices of atmospheric circulation. Clim Dyn 2004, 23:99–115.
105 Tian, J, Nelson, DM, Hu, FS. Possible linkages of late‐Holocene drought in the North American midcontinent to Pacific Decadal Oscillation and solar activity. Geophys Res Lett 2006, 33.
106 Shindell, DT, Miller, RL, Schmidt, GA, Pandolfo, L. Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse‐gas forcing. Nature 1999, 399:452–455. doi:10.1038/20905.
107 Hoerling, MP, Hurrell, JW, Xu, T. Tropical origins for recent North Atlantic climate change. Science 2001, 292:90–92. doi:10.1126/science.1058582.
108 Overland, JE, Wang, M. The Arctic climate paradox: the recent decrease of the Arctic Oscillation. Geophys Res Lett 2005, 32:doi:10.1029/2004GL021752.
109 Collins, M. Understanding uncertainties in the response of ENSO to greenhouse warming. Geophys Res Lett 2000, 27:3509–3512.
110 Timmermann, A, Oberhuber, J, Bacher, A, Esch, M, Latif, M, Roeckner, E. Increased El Nino frequency in a climate model forced by future greenhouse warming. Nature 1999, 398:694–697.
111 Yeh, Sang‐Wook, Kug, Jong‐Seong, Dewitte, Boris, Kwon, Min‐Ho, Kirtman, Ben P, Jin, Fei‐Fei. El Nino in a changing climate. Nature 2009, 461:511–514. DOI:10.1038/nature08316.
112 Mantua, NJ, Hare, SR. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation. J Oceanogr 2002, 58:35–44. doi:10.1023/A:10 15820616384.
113 van der Werf, GR, Randerson, JT, Giglio, L, Gobron, N, Dolman, AJ. Climate controls on the variability of fires in the tropics and subtropics. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 2008, 22.
114 McKenzie, D, Gedalof, Z, Peterson, DL, Mote, P. Climatic change, wildfire, and conservation. Conserv Biol 2004, 18:890–902.
115 Latham, DJ, Williams, ER. %22Lightning and Forest Fires.%22 In: Johnson, EA, Miyanishi, K, eds. Forest Fires: Behavior and Ecological Effects
. San Diego, California, USA: Academic Press
; 2001, 375–418.
116 Rakov, VA, Uman, MA. Lightning: Physics and Effects. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press
117 Williams, ER. The tripole structure of thunderstorms. J Geophys Res 1989, 94:13151–13167. doi:10.1029/JD094iD11p13151.
118 Taylor, AR. %22Lightning effects on the forest complex.%22 In: Proceedings of the Annual Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, Number 9; Macon, Riverside, Missoula: 1969, 127–150.
119 Darveniza, M, Zhou, Y. Lightning‐initiated fires: energy absorbed by fibrous materials from impulse current arcs. J Geophys Res 1994, 99:10663–10670. doi:10.1029/94jd00147.
120 Williams, ER. The positive charge reservoir for sprite‐producing lightning. J Atmos Solar Terrest Phys 1998, 60:689–692.
121 Fuquay, DM. %22Lightning Damage and Lightning Modification Caused by Cloud Seeding.%22 In: Hess, WN, ed. Weather and Climate Modification
. New York, NY, USA: John Wiley %26 Sons
; 1974, 604–612.
122 Fuquay, DM, Baughman, RG, Taylor, AR, Hawe, RG. Characteristics of seven lightning discharges that caused forest fires. J Geophys Res 1967, 72: 6371–6373. doi:10.1029/JZ072i024p06371.
123 Fuquay, DM, Taylor, AR, Hawe, RG, Schmid, CW Jr. Lightning discharges that caused forest fires. J Geophys Res 1972, 77:2156–2158.
124 Latham, DJ. Anode column behavior of long vertical air arcs at atmospheric pressure. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 1986, 14: 220–227.
125 Wilson, RA Jr. Observations of extinction and marginal burning states in free burning porous fuel beds. Combust Sci Technol 1985, 44:179–193.
126 Xavier Viegas, D. Forest fire propagation. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser A Math Phys Eng Sci 1998, 356:2907–2928. doi:10.1098/rsta.1998.0303.
127 Michaletz, ST, Johnson, EA. How forest fires kill trees: a review of the fundamental biophysical processes. Scand J For Res 2007, 22:500–515.
128 Nash, CH, Johnson, EA. Synoptic climatology of lightning‐caused forest fires in subalpine and boreal forests. Can J For Res‐Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 1996, 26:1859–1874.
129 Price, C, Rind, D. Possible implications of global climate‐change on global lightning distributions and frequencies. J Geophys Res 1994, 99:10823–10831.
130 Price, C. %22Thunderstorms Lightning and Climate Change.%22 In: Betz, HD, Schumann, U, Laroche, P, eds. Lightning: Principles, Instruments and Applications: Review of Modern Lightning Research
. vol. 1. Dordrecht, The Netherlands:: Springer
; 2009, 641.
131 Williams, ER. Lightning and climate: A review. Atmospheric Research 2005, 76:272–287.
132 Cunningham, P, Linn, RR. Numerical simulations of grass fires using a coupled atmosphere‐fire model: dynamics of fire spread. J Geophys Res 2007, 112:D05108, doi:10.1029/2006jd007638.
133 Albini, FA. A model for fire spread in wildland fuels by radiation. Combust Sci Technol 1985, 42:229–258.
134 Albini, FA. A model for the wind‐blown flame from a line fire. Combust Flame 1981, 43:155–174.
135 Howell, JR. A catalog of radiation heat transfer configuration factors. (McGraw‐Hill Book Company). New York 1982.
136 Tibbals, EC, Carr, EK, Gates, DM, Kreith, F. Radiation and convection in conifers. Am J Bot 1964, 51:529–538.
137 Gates, DM, Tibbals, EC, Kreith, F. Radiation and convection for ponderosa pine. Am J Bot 1965, 52:66–71.
138 Michaletz, ST, Johnson, EA. A heat transfer model of crown scorch in forest fires. Can J For Res 2006, 36:2839–2851.
139 Van Wagner, CE. Conditions for the start and spread of crown fire. Can J For Res 1977, 7:23–34.
140 Cruz, MG, Butler, BW, Alexander, ME, Forthofer, JM, Wakimoto, RH. Predicting the ignition of crown fuels above a spreading surface fire. Part I: model idealization. Int J Wildland Fire 2006, 15:47–60.
141 Mercer, GN, Weber, RO. Plumes above line fires in a cross wind. Int J Wildland Fire 1994, 4:201–207.
142 Viegas, XD. %22Convective processes in forest fires.%22 In: Plate, EJ, ed. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Buoyant Convection in Geophysical Flows. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers
; 1998, 401–420.
143 Sardoy, N, Consalvi, J‐L, Porterie, B, Fernandez‐Pello, AC. Modeling transport and combustion of firebrands from burning trees. Combust Flame 2007, 150:151–169.
144 Tarifa, CS, Del Notario, PP, Moreno, FG. On the flight paths and lifetimes of burning particles of wood. Symp (Int) Combust 1965, 10:1021–1037.
145 Viegas, XD. Forest fire propagation. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser A Math Phys Eng Sci 1998, 356:2907–2928. doi:10.1098/rsta.1998.0303.
146 Fendell, FE, Wolff, MF. %22Wind‐aided fire spread.%22 In: Johnson, EA, Miyanishi, K, eds. Forest Fires: Behavior and Ecological Effects
. New York, NY, USA: Academic Press
; 2001, 171–223.
147 Sun, R, Krueger, SK, Jenkins, MA, Zulauf, MA, Charney, JJ. The importance of fire‐atmosphere coupling and boundary‐layer turbulence to wildfire spread. Int J Wildland Fire 2009, 18:50–60.
148 Stull, RB. An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers
149 Clark, TL, Jenkins, MA, Coen, J, Packham, D. A coupled atmosphere‐fire model: convective feedback on fire‐line dynamics. J Appl Meteorol 1996, 35: 875–901.
150 Nimchuk, N. Wildfire behavior associated with upper ridge breakdown. Alberta Energy and Natural Resources, Canadian Forest Service, Report T150. 1983.
151 Fryer, GI, Johnson, EA. Reconstructing fire behavior and effects in a subalpine forest. J Appl Ecol 1988, 25:1063–1072.
152 Breslow, PB, Sailor, DJ. Vulnerability of wind power resources to climate change in the Continental United States. Renew Energy 2002, 27:585–598.
153 Wilson, RA. Observations of extinction and marginal burning states in free burning porous fuel beds. Combust Sci Technol 1985, 44:179–193.
154 Dickinson, MB, Johnson, EA. Surface Fire Extinction in Mixedwood Boreal Forest Fuels. Sustainable Forest Management Network Project Reports 2003/2004. 2004.
155 Huntington, TG. Evidence for intensification of the global water cycle: review and synthesis. J Hydrol 2006, 319:83–95. doi. 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.07.
156 Held, IM, Soden, BJ. Robust responses of the hydrological cycle to global warming. J Clim 2006, 19:5686–5699. doi:10.1175/JCLI3990.1.
157 IPCC. Climate Change 2007
—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC
. Cambridge, United Kingdom %26 New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press
158 Houghton, J. Global warming. Rep Prog Phys 2005, 68:1343–1403.
159 Hurrell, JW. Decadel climate prediction: challenges and opportunities—art. no. 012018. Scidac 2008: Sci Discov Adv Comput 2008, 125:12018–12018.
160 Hurrell, J, Meehl, GA, Bader, D, Delworth, TL, Kirtman B, Wielicki, B. A unified modeling approach to climate system prediction. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 2009, 90:1819–1832. doi:10.1175/2009bams2752.1.
161 WCRP. The World Climate Research Programme strategic framework 2005–2015: Coordinated Observation and Prediction of the Earth System (COPES). 2005, 65.
162 Soja, AJ, Tchebakova, NM, French, NHF, Flannigan, MD, Shugart, HH, Stocks, BJ, Sukhinin, AI, Varfenova, EI, Chapin, FS, Stackhouse, PW. Climate‐induced boreal forest change: predictions versus current observations. Glob Planet Change 2007, 56:274–296.
163 Wotton, BM, Martell, DL, Logan, KA. Climate change and people‐caused forest fire occurrence in Ontario. Clim Change 2003, 60:275–295.
164 Flannigan, MD, Logan, KA, Amiro, BD, Skinner, WR, Stocks, BJ. Future area burned in Canada. Clim Change 2005, 72:1–16.
165 Tymstra, C, Flannigan, MD, Armitage, OB, Logan, K. Impact of climate change on area burned in Alberta`s boreal forest. Int J Wildland Fire 2007, 16:153–160.
166 Girardin, MP, Mudelsee, M. Past and future changes in Canadian boreal wildfire activity. Ecol Appl 2008, 18:391–406.
167 Mudelsee, M, Girardin, MP. Risk prediction of Canadian wildfires. PAGES News 2008, 16:28–30.
168 Malevsky‐Malevich, SP, Molkentin, EK, Nadyozhina, ED, Shklyarevich, OB. An assessment of potential change in wildfire activity in the Russian boreal forest zone induced by climate warming during the twenty‐first century. Clim Change 2008, 86:463–474.
169 Balshi, MS, McGuire, AD, Duffy, P, Flannigan, M, Kicklighter, DW, Melillo, J. Vulnerability of carbon storage in North American boreal forests to wildfires during the 21st century. Glob Change Biol 2009, 15:1491–1510.
170 Krawchuk, MA, Cumming, SG, Flannigan, MD. Predicted changes in fire weather suggest increases in lightning fire initiation and future area burned in the mixedwood boreal forest. Clim Change 2009, 92:83–97.
171 Stocks, BJ, Fosberg, MA, Lynham, TJ, Mearns, L, Wotton, BM, Yang, Q, Jin, JZ, Lawrence, K, Hartley, GR, Mason, JA, et al. Climate change and forest fire potential in Russian and Canadian boreal forests. Clim Change 1998, 38:1–13.
172 Flannigan, MD, Bergeron, Y, Engelmark, O, Wotton, BM. Future wildfire in circumboreal forests in relation to global warming. J Veg Sci 1998, 469–476.
173 Lesieur, D, Gauthier, S, Bergeron, Y. Fire frequency and vegetation dynamics for the south‐central boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Can J For Res‐Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 2002, 32:1996–2009.