1 Halley, E. An historical account of the trade winds, and monsoons, observable in the seas between and near the Tropicks, with an attempt to assign the physical cause of the said winds. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 1686, 1:153–168.
2 Hadley, G. Concerning the cause of the general trade‐winds. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 1735, 39:58–62.
3 Dove, HW. Meteorologische Untersuchungen. Berlin: Sanderischen Buchhandlung
4 Ferrel, W. An essay on the winds and currents of the ocean. Nashv J Med Surg 1856, 11:287–301, 375–389.
5 Chamberlin, TCA. Group of hypotheses bearing on climatic changes. J Geol 1897, 5:653–683.
6 Chamberlin, TC. The influence of great epochs of limestone formation upon the constitution of the atmosphere. J Geol 1898, 6:609–621.
7 Russell, RJ. %22Climatic change through the ages.%22 In: United States Department of Agriculture, ed. Climate and Man
. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office
; 1941, 67–97.
8 Brooks, CEP. %22Geological and historical aspects of climatic change.%22 In: Malone, TF, ed. Compendium of Meteorology. Boston: American Meteorological Society
; 1951, 1004–1018.
9 Richardson, LF. Weather Prediction by Numerical Process. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
10 Fultz, D. Dynamics of Climate
. New York: Pergamon Press
; 1960, 71–77.
11 Hide, R. Some experiments on thermal convection in a rotating liquid quarterly. J R Meteorol Soc 1953, 79:161.
12 Kuo, H‐L. %22Theoretical findings concerning the effects of heating and rotation on the mechanism of energy release in rotating fluid systems.%22 In: Pfeffer, RL, ed. Dynamics of Climate. New York: Pergamon Press
; 1960, 78–85.
13 Lewis, JM. Clarifying the dynamics of the general circulation: Phillips`s 1956 experiment. Bul Am Meteorol Soc 1998, 79:39–60.
14 Phillips, NA. The general circulation of the atmosphere: a numerical experiment. Q J R Meteorol Soc 1956, 82:123–164.
15 Adhémar, AJ. Les révolutions de la mer. Privately published. Paris: 1842.
16 Croll, J. Climate and Time in Their Geological Relations. Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black
17 Muller, R, MacDonald, GJ. Ice Ages and Astronomical Causes: Data, Spectral Analysis, and Mechanisms
. New York: Springer
18 Paillard, D. Climate and the orbital parameters of the Earth. C R Geosci 2010, 342:273–285.
19 Fourier, JBJ. Théorie analytique de la chaleur. Paris: F. Didot
20 Arrhenius, S. On the influence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature of the ground. Philos Mag J Sci 1896, 41:237–276.
21 Uppenbrink, J. Arrhenius and global warming. Science 1996, 272:1122.
22 Callendar, GS. The artificial production of carbon dioxide and its influence on temperature. Q J R Meteorol Soc 1938, 64:223–240.
23 Schneider, SH, Dickinson, RE. Climate modeling. Rev Geophys Space Phys 1974, 12:447–493. doi:10.1029/RG012i003p00447.
24 McGuffie, K, Henderson‐Sellers, AA. Climate Modelling Primer
. New York: John Wiley %26 Sons
25 Weart, SR. The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
26 Bjerknes, V, Sandström, JW, Hesselberg, T, Devik, OM. Dynamic Meteorology and Hydrography
. Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington
27 Bjerknes, V. Fields of Force: Supplementary Lectures, Applications to Meteorology
. New York: Columbia University Press
28 Lynch, P. The Emergence of Numerical Weather Prediction: Richardson`s Dream
. New York: Cambridge University Press
29 Nebeker, F. Calculating the Weather: Meteorology in the 20th Century
. New York: Academic Press
30 Harper, KC. Weather by the Numbers: The Genesis of Modern Meteorology. Cambridge: MIT Press
31 Phillips, TJ, Potter, GL, Williamson, DL, Cederwall RT, Boyle JS, Fiorino M, Hnilo JJ, Olson JG, Xie S, Yio JJ. Evaluating parameterizations in general circulation models: climate simulation meets weather prediction. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 2004, 85:1903–1915.
32 Shackley, S. %22Epistemic lifestyles in climate change modeling.%22 In: Miller, CA, Edwards, PN, eds. Changing the Atmosphere: Expert Knowledge and Environmental Governance. Cambridge: MIT Press
; 2001, 107–134.
33 Edwards, PN. Global climate science, uncertainty and politics: data‐laden models, model‐filtered data. Sci Cult 1999, 8:437–472. doi:10.1080/09505439909526558.
34 Edwards, PNA. Vast Machine: Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
35 Petersen, A. Simulating Nature: A Philosophical Study of Computer‐Simulation Uncertainties and Their Role in Climate Science and Policy Advice. Antwerp: Het Spinhuis
36 Sundberg, M. Parameterizations as boundary objects on the climate arena social. Stud Sci 2007, 37:473–488.
37 Arakawa, A. The cumulus parameterization problem: past, present, and future. J Clim 2004, 17:2493–2525.
38 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. New York: Cambridge University Press
39 Kurihara, Y. Numerical integration of the primitive equations on a spherical grid. Mon Weather Rev 1965, 93:399–415.
40 Sadourny, R, Arakawa, A, Mintz, Y. Integration of the nondivergent barotopic vorticity equation with an icosahedral‐hexagonal grid for the sphere. Mon Weather Rev 1968, 96:351–356.
41 Silberman, I. Planetary waves in the atmosphere. J Atmos Sci 1954, 11:27–34.
42 Platzman, GW. The spectral form of the vorticity equation. J Meteorol 1960, 17:635–644.
43 Robert, AJ. %22The integration of a spectral model of the atmosphere by the implicit method.%22 In: World Meteorological Organization, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, eds. Proceedings of the WMO IUGG symposium on numerical weather prediction in Tokyo, Japan, November 26–December 4, Tokyo; 1968, Meteorological Society of Japan, VII‐9–VII‐24.
44 Orszag, SA. Transform method for the calculation of vector‐coupled sums: application to the spectral form of the vorticity equation. J Atmos Sci 1970, 27:890–895.
45 Orszag, SA. Fourier series on spheres. Mon Weather Rev 1974, 102:56–75.
46 Eliasen, E, Machenhauer, B, Rasmussen, E. On a Numerical Method for Integration of the Hydrodynamical Equations with a Spectral Representation of the Horizontal Fields; 1970.
47 Bourke, W, McAvaney, B, Puri, K, Thurling, R. %22Global modeling of atmospheric flow by spectral methods.%22 In: Chang, J, ed. General Circulation Models of the Atmosphere. San Francisco: Academic Press
; 1977, 267–324.
48 Bourke, WA. Multi‐level spectral model. I. Formulation and hemispheric integrations. Mon Weather Rev 1974, 102:687–701.
49 Smagorinsky, J. On the numerical integration of the primitive equations of motion for baroclinic flow in a closed region. Mon Weather Rev 1958, 86:457–466.
50 Smagorinsky, J, Manabe, S, Holloway, JL. Numerical results from a nine‐level general circulation model of the atmosphere. Mon Weather Rev 1965, 93:727–768.
51 Manabe, S, Wetherald, R. Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a given distribution of relative humidity. J Atmos Sci 1967, 24:241–259.
52 Smagorinsky, J. The beginnings of numerical weather prediction and general circulation modeling: early recollections. Adv Geophys 1983, 25:3–37.
53 Manabe, S, Bryan, K. Climate calculations with a combined ocean‐atmosphere model. J Atmos Sci 1969, 26:786–789.
54 Manabe, S, Bryan, K, Spelman, MJA. Global ocean‐atmosphere climate model: Part I. The atmospheric circulation. J Phys Oceanogr 1975, 5:3–29.
55 Manabe, S. %22The dependence of atmospheric temperature on the concentration of carbon dioxide.%22 In: Singer, SF, ed. Global Effects of Environmental Pollution. Dallas: D. Reidel
; 1970, 25–29.
56 Manabe, S. %22Estimates of future change of climate due to the increase of carbon dioxide.%22 In: Mathews, WH, Kellog, WW, Robinson, GD, eds. Man`s Impact on the Climate. Cambridge: MIT Press
; 1971, 250–264.
57 Manabe, S, Stouffer, RJ. Multiple‐century response of a coupled ocean‐atmosphere model to an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide. J Clim 1994, 7:5–23.
58 Mintz, Y. Design of some numerical general circulation experiments. Bul Res Counc Isr 1958, 76:67–114.
59 Arakawa, A. Paul N. Edwards, July 17–18, 1997.
60 Arakawa, A. %22A personal perspective on the early years of general circulation modeling at UCLA.%22 In: Randall, DA, ed. General Circulation Model Development. San Diego: Academic Press
; 2000, 1–65.
61 Leith, CE. Methods in Computational Physics
. New York: Academic Press
; 1965, 1–28.
62 Kasahara, A, Washington, WM. NCAR global general circulation model of the atmosphere. Mon Weather Rev 1967, 95:389–402.
63 Oliger, JE, Wellck, RE, Kasahara, A, Washington, WM. Description of NCAR Global Circulation Model. Boulder: National Center for Atmospheric Research
64 Kasahara, A, Washington, WM. General circulation experiments with a six‐layer NCAR model, including orography, cloudiness and surface temperature calculations. J Atmos Sci 1971, 28:657–701.
65 Kasahara, A, Sasamori, T, Washington, WM. Simulation experiments with a 12‐layer stratospheric global circulation model. I. Dynamical effect of the earth`s orography and thermal influence of continentality. J Atmos Sci 1973, 30:1229–1251.
66 Washington, WM, Dickinson, R, Ramanathan, V, Mayer T, Williamson D, Williamson G, Wolski R. %22Preliminary atmospheric simulation with the third‐generation NCAR general circulation model: January and July.%22 In: Lawrence, W, ed. Report of the Joc Conference on Climate Models: Performance, Intercomparison, and Sensitivity Studies
. Washington: WMO/ICSU Joint Organizing Committee %26 Global Atmospheric Research Programme
; 1979, 95–138.
67 Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Available at: http://www‐pcmdi.llnl.gov/projects/amip/index.php. (Accessed December 2010).
68 Covey, C, AchutaRao, KM, Cubasch, U, Jones P, Lambert SJ, Mann ME, Phillips TJ, Taylor KE. An overview of results from the coupled model intercomparison project. Glob Planet Change 2003, 37:103–133.
69 Meadows, DH, Meadows, DL, Randers, J, Behrens III, WW. The Limits to Growth: a Report for the Club of Rome`s Project on the Predicament of Mankind
. New York: Universe Books
70 Hill, C, DeLuca, C, Balaji, MS, da Silva, A. The architecture of the earth system modeling framework. Comput Sci Eng 2004, 6:18–28.
71 Program on Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Available at: http://www‐pcmdi.llnl.gov. (Accessed December 2010).