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WIREs Cogn Sci
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Guidelines for studying developmental prosopagnosia in adults and children

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Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by severe face identity recognition problems that results from a failure to develop the mechanisms necessary for adequate face processing (Duchaine BC, Nakayama K. Developmental prosopagnosia: a window to content‐specific face processing. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2006, 16:166–173.). It occurs in children and adults with normal visual acuity, and without intellectual impairments or known brain injuries. Given the importance of face recognition in daily life, and the detrimental effects of impaired face recognition, DP is an important area of study. Yet conventions for classifying individuals as DP for research purposes are poorly defined. In this focus paper, we discuss: (1) criteria for an operational definition of DP; 2) tests of face recognition and conventions for classifying individuals as DP; and 3) important considerations regarding common associations and dissociations, and cognitive heterogeneity in DP. We also highlight issues unique to studying DP in children, a relatively new endeavor that is proving to be an important complement to the work with adults. Ultimately, we hope to identify challenges researchers face when studying DP, and offer guidelines for others to consider when embarking on their own research pursuits on the topic. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:73–87. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1374

(a) Format of Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT,) for adults. The target face is for illustrative purposes and is not used in the actual test. Sample trials from (b) Cambridge Bicycle Memory Test (CBMT,), (c) Cambridge Face Memory Test—Kids (CFMT‐Kids,), (d) Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT,), and, (e) Dartmouth Face Perception Test (for children) (DFPT,).
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Mean scores by age for different versions of Cambridge Face Memory Test—Kids (CFMT‐Kids). Six‐target version follows the format of the CFMT for adults, with 72 trials in total. Four‐target version follows the same format as the CFMT for adults, but uses 4 targets instead of 6, with 48 trials in total. The immediate recall version presents the Introductory section of the CFMT‐Kids six‐target version twice, for a total of 12 targets, with 36 trials in total. Specifically, children learn a target and then pick it out from a choice of three, but are never required to hold multiple targets in memory. Error bars represent standard deviation. Two standard deviations below the mean is one convention for calculating a cut‐off for impairment. Dotted line represents chance level performance.
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