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WIREs Dev Biol
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Development of the hematopoietic system: Role of inflammatory factors

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Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have two defining features, multipotency and self‐renewal, both of which are tightly controlled by cell autonomous programs and environmental factors throughout the lifetime of an organism. During development, HSCs are born in the aorta‐gonad‐mesonephros region, and migrate to distinct hematopoietic organs such as the placenta, fetal liver and spleen, continuously self‐renewing and expanding to reach a homeostatic number. HSCs ultimately seed the bone marrow around the time of birth and become dormant to sustain lifelong hematopoiesis. In this review, we will summarize the recent findings on the role of inflammatory factors regulating HSC development, that is, emergence, trafficking and differentiation. An understanding of HSC kinetics during developmental processes will provide useful knowledge on HSC behavior under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This article is categorized under: Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Regeneration Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Tissue Stem Cells and Niches Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Environmental Control of Stem Cells
Location and size of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool during hematopoietic development. The yolk sac is the initial site of primitive hematopoiesis and produces the first primitive erythroid precursors, macrophages and megakaryocytes precursors at around embryonic day (E) 7.5 in the mouse. Subsequently, HSCs which are transplantable and self‐renewable are born at around E11. HSCs that can contribute to adult hematopoiesis emerge in the aorta‐gonad‐mesonephros (AGM) region, and then migrate to the placenta, fetal liver, and fetal spleen. HSCs finally migrate to the BM and are maintained there for the rest of an organism's life. Despite differences in the time course, this developmental scheme is applicable to most mammals. The area of each organ represents the number of HSCs. Dashed arrows display possible pathways of HSC trafficking
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Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Tissue Stem Cells and Niches
Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Regeneration
Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Environmental Control of Stem Cells