Home
This Title All WIREs
WIREs RSS Feed
How to cite this WIREs title:
WIREs Dev Biol
Impact Factor: 3.754

Cellular mechanisms of epithelial stem cell self‐renewal and differentiation during homeostasis and repair

Full article on Wiley Online Library:   HTML PDF

Can't access this content? Tell your librarian.

Abstract Epithelia in adult mammals exhibit remarkable regenerative capacities owing to the presence of adult stem cells, which self‐renew and differentiate to replace cells lost to normal turnover or injury. The mechanisms supporting tissue homeostasis and injury‐induced repair often differ from each other as well as from those used in embryonic development. Recent studies have also highlighted the phenomenon of cellular plasticity in adult tissues, in which differentiated cells can change fate and even give rise to new stem cell populations to complement the canonical stem cells in promoting repair following injury. Signaling pathways such as WNT, bone morphogenetic protein, and Sonic Hedgehog play critical roles in stem cell maintenance and cell fate decisions across diverse epithelia and conditions, suggesting that conserved mechanisms underlie the regenerative capacity of adult epithelial structures. This article is categorized under: Gene Expression and Transcriptional Hierarchies > Regulatory Mechanisms Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Tissue Stem Cells and Niches Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Stem Cell Differentiation and Reversion Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Regeneration
Epithelial tissues with adult stem cells that contribute to tissue maintenance during homeostasis and regeneration. (a) Bronchioalveolar epithelium, after Schilders et al., , figure 2. AT1 cell, alveolar type I cell; AT2 cell, alveolar type II cell; BASC, bronchioalveolar stem cell. (b) Upper airway epithelium, after Schilders et al., , figure 1. (c) Intestinal epithelium, after Barker 2013. CBC, crypt base columnar cell. (d) Olfactory epithelium, after Gadye et al., , figure 1. GBC, globose basal cell; HBC, horizontal basal cell; OSN, olfactory sensory neuron. (e) Epidermis, after Hsu, Li, and Fuchs, , figure 1. (f) Cochlear epithelium, after Atkinson, Najarro, Sayyid, & Cheng, , figure 1. (g) Salivary gland, after Weng et al., graphical abstract. (h) Hair follicle, after Hsu et al., 2014, figure 4
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Conserved developmental pathways regulate stem cell proliferation (a), differentiation (b), and cell fate choice among multiple lineages (c). Green text indicates that the pathway promotes stem cell proliferation (a) or differentiation (b) in that tissue; magenta text indicates that the pathway inhibits stem cell proliferation (a) or differentiation (b). SC, stem cell; TAC, transit amplifying cell
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]

Browse by Topic

Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Tissue Stem Cells and Niches
Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Stem Cell Differentiation and Reversion
Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Regeneration
Gene Expression and Transcriptional Hierarchies > Regulatory Mechanisms