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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Offshore winds mapped from satellite remote sensing

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Around 2000 wind turbines in 58 offshore wind farms produce wind energy in the Northern European seas and many new wind farms are foreseen. The wind resource assessment is costly to observe using traditional meteorological masts and therefore atmospheric modeling is state of the art. However, to reduce the uncertainty on the model results on the offshore wind resource, it is necessary to compare model results with observations. Observations from ground‐based wind lidar and satellite remote sensing are the two main technologies that can provide new types of offshore wind data at relatively low cost. The advantages of microwave satellite remote sensing are (1) horizontal spatial coverage, (2) long data archives, and (3) high spatial detail both in the coastal zone and of far‐field wind farm wake. Passive microwave ocean wind speed data are available since 1987 with up to six observations per day with near‐global coverage. The data are particularly useful for investigation of long‐term wind conditions. Scatterometer ocean surface wind vectors provide a continuous series since 1999 with twice‐daily near‐global coverage. Both types of data have grid cells around 25 km. In contrast, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) wind maps can be retrieved at 1‐km grid resolution. SAR‐based wind maps have been used for wind resource assessment far offshore and in the coastal zones with good results when compared to e.g., meteorological data and mesoscale model results. High‐resolution SAR data show very long far‐field wind farm wakes. Thus wind farm wake loss is foreseen in wind farm clusters. WIREs Energy Environ 2014, 3:594–603. doi: 10.1002/wene.123 This article is categorized under: Wind Power > Science and Materials
Diagram is showing the main ocean wind satellite technology types, their spatial and temporal resolution, and main application domains.
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Offshore wind farm wake in the North Sea observed by Radarsat‐2. The SAR image is processed by CLS. (Copyright RADARSAT‐2 Data and Products © MacDonald, Dettewiler and Associates Ltd.)
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Envisat ASAR wind speed map from Iceland observed September 24, 2005 at 11.30 UTC. The wind arrows are from the NOGAPS global atmospheric model.
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Ocean mean wind speed difference between afternoon and morning passes observed from QuikSCAT from Remote Sensing Systems from November 1, 1999 to October 31, 2009. White areas show low data availability.
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Wind speed distribution of the annual mean values of wind speed in six 5 m/s wind speed levels observed from 1988 to 2012 from SSM/I at Dogger Bank at 10 m above sea level.
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