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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Short‐term frequency response of power systems with high non‐synchronous penetration levels

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In addition to the generation and transmission of electricity, the reliable and secure operation of power systems also relies upon various ancillary support services supplied by power plant and loads. The portfolio of required support services has historically been well understood. However, as conventional power plant are displaced by modern variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar, so too are those traditional ancillary support services. As a result, new support services are required and changes in operational behavior are necessary. The impact of increased variable generation levels on one such support service category, short‐term system frequency response, is considered here. The evolution of power system behavior with respect to this service is assessed, with potential solutions to the associated challenges explored, and pertinent future questions in this area highlighted. WIREs Energy Environ 2015, 4:452–470. doi: 10.1002/wene.158 This article is categorized under: Energy Infrastructure > Economics and Policy Energy Infrastructure > Systems and Infrastructure
Frequency response categories.
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Impact of large aggregate energy recovery from active controls on system frequency response. Western interconnection response for 40% wind power penetration.
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Simulated frequency response following disturbance with units having a stepped droop curve governor response.
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Simulated frequency response of the CAISO system incorporating droop response and emulated inertia from wind plant.
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Illustrative droop characteristic.
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Emulated inertia response shape and variation with wind speed (GE field tests).
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Ireland and Northern Ireland system RoCoF 2020.
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Ireland and Northern Ireland system stored energy duration curve.
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Illustrative frequency trace following event.
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