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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Steam power plant configuration, design, and control

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This article provides an overview of fossil‐fuel power plant (FFPP) configuration, design and especially, the control technology, both the conventional and the advanced technologies. First, a brief introduction of FFPP fundamentals and configurations are presented, followed by the description of conventional PID‐based control system in the FFPPs and its short‐comings. As the major part of this writing, different advanced control strategies and applications are reported, with their significant features outlined and discussed. These new technologies are collected from both the academic studies and industrial practices, which can improve the performance of the FFPP control system for more economic and safe plant operation. The final section presents a view of the next generation FFPP control technologies, emphasizing potential business and research opportunities. WIREs Energy Environ 2015, 4:537–563. doi: 10.1002/wene.161 This article is categorized under: Fossil Fuels > Systems and Infrastructure Energy Efficiency > Systems and Infrastructure Energy Infrastructure > Science and Materials Energy Infrastructure > Systems and Infrastructure
Simplified coal‐fired subcritical power plant (Picture from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_power_station#Boiler_furnace_and_steam_drum).
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NNIC augmented by a PID compensator.
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Control system of the NNIC.
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Basic structure of the ENN.
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Control diagram of model‐weighted multi‐model MPC.
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Basic working principle of the MPC.
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Block diagram of a typical H mixed sensitivity problem.
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Gain Scheduling PID control.
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Block diagram of a typical tuning method for PI/PID parameters.
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Classical cascade SST control in the FFPP (T1 is final steam temperature; T2 is the steam temperature signal immediately after the attemperation; γT1 and γT2 are the temperature transmitters; Kz is the actuator of the attemperator valve).
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Operation regions of superheater steam temperature (T_sp is the temperature set‐point and the numbers represent temperature deviations in Celsius degree).
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Three elements cascade feedwater control system for a drum type boiler (Δp is the differential pressure transmitter; is the square root extractor; aw, aD are the sensitive coefficients of feedwater flow rate and steam flow rate signals; Kz is the actuator of the feedwater flow control valve).
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Three sub regulators of boiler combustion control system (P0: main steam pressure set‐point; PT: main steam pressure output; D: main steam flow rate; O2: oxygen content in the flue gas; V: air flow rate; Pss: furnace pressure set‐point; Ps: furnace pressure output; BD: boiler demand).
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Combustion control system (BD: boiler demand).
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Working Principle of the Coordinated TF mode (E0: load set‐point; P0: main steam pressure set‐point; E: power output; PT: main steam pressure output; BD: boiler demand; TD: turbine demand).
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Working Principle of the Coordinated BF mode (E0: load set‐point; P0: main steam pressure set‐point; E: power output; PT: main steam pressure output; BD: boiler demand; TD: turbine demand).
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Capacity of supercritical and ultra‐supercritical plant in major countries (refers to capacity in 2010 unless specified otherwise, Picture from http://www.iea.org).
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Simplified supercritical power plant (Picture from http://www.flowserve.com/Industries/Power‐Generation/Conventional‐Steam/Flowserve‐Products‐Used‐in‐Supercritical‐Units,en_US).
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