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WIREs Energy Environ.
Impact Factor: 3.297

Physical and cyber security in a smart grid environment

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As a critical infrastructure, the electric power grid is vulnerable with respect to malicious physical and cyber attacks. Indeed, the importance of physical and cyber security for smart grids has been highlighted by recent intrusion incidents worldwide. Various types of sensors, instrumentation, information and communications technology (ICT), computational methodologies, and security controls have been developed to enhance the physical and cyber security of the smart grid. In this paper, critical vulnerabilities of a smart grid that can be exploited for physical and cyber intrusions are discussed. A comprehensive survey is conducted on the state‐of‐the‐art research to enhance the physical and cyber security in a smart grid environment. Furthermore, the interdependency of physical and cyber security is illustrated with an intrusion scenario. The emphasis is on the physical and cyber security of power substations. Computer simulation results for a case study are presented. WIREs Energy Environ 2016, 5:519–542. doi: 10.1002/wene.202 This article is categorized under: Energy Infrastructure > Systems and Infrastructure
Cyber–physical system.
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Procedure of the system response.
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Architecture of the substation physical security monitoring system.
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Load variations at bus 28.
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Voltage variations at bus 29.
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Current variations on lines 26–28 and 28–29.
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Frequency variations.
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Substation information and communications technology model.
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Substation layout and the intrusion path.
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Three‐dimensional substation scene.
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Typical flowchart of image processing for detection.
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Cyber security controls for the smart grid.
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Typical architecture of the surveillance system.
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