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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Wind power within European grid codes: Evolution, status and outlook

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Grid codes are technical specifications that define the requirements for any facility connected to electricity grids. Wind power plants are increasingly facing system stability support requirements similar to conventional power stations, which is to some extent unavoidable, as the share of wind power in the generation mix is growing. The adaptation process of grid codes for wind power plants is not yet complete, and grid codes are expected to evolve further in the future. ENTSO‐E is the umbrella organization for European TSOs, seen by many as a leader in terms of requirements sophistication. A current development by ENTSO‐E aims to develop a uniform grid code framework for Europe. The new European codes leave many key aspects unspecified, referring instead to regulation by the relevant TSO, but they do provide a positive and encouraging step in the right direction. The present document is largely based on the definitions and provisions set out by ENTSO‐E. The main European grid code requirements are outlined here, including also HVDC connections and DC‐connected power park modules. The focus is on requirements that are considered particularly relevant for large wind power plants. Afterwards, an outlook and discussion on possible future requirements is provided. This review has been written by members of IEA Wind Task 25, but it does not represent an official viewpoint of the IEA. This article is categorized under: Wind Power > Systems and Infrastructure
Disturbance on November 4, 2006 (adapted from (Maas et al., ))
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Downward regulation of active power at high wind speeds in Denmark (Energinet.dk, )
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Overview of offshore wind definitions
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Over‐voltage fault ride‐through capability specification for Hydro Quebec system (Hydro Quebec, )
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Envelope of under‐voltage fault ride‐through capability requirements
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Effect of FRT capability in Spain
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Example of active power frequency response curve (EirGrid, ) (WFPS = Wind Farm Power Station)
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Active power frequency response capability (ENTSO‐E, )
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Reactive power capability
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Summary of operational voltage ranges
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Operational frequency range
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Distribution of wind power plants in Germany (2011), by Alexrk2 (Alexrk2, )
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