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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Aerodynamic measurements on wind turbines

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This article reviews the aerodynamic measurement programs on wind turbines that have been performed in the last decades. It is largely based on results from four projects carried out under auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA), which are denoted as IEA Tasks 14, 18, 20, and 29. The aim of these projects was to collect and analyze aerodynamic measurements on five field facilities (IEA Tasks 14 and 18), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Phase VI turbine placed in the large NASA Ames wind tunnel (IEA Task 20), and the Mexico turbine placed in the Large Low Speed Facility of the German Dutch Wind tunnel DNW (IEA Task 29). Other experimental programs with an important aerodynamic content are touched upon as well. Research areas for which these measurements have led to important progress are identified. The progress is illustrated with analyses on these experiments. It is shown that detailed aerodynamic measurements are an absolute necessity for the validation and improvement of wind turbine design codes, where it is also concluded that the amount of measurement data which has been produced until now is still far too limited. This article is categorized under: Wind Power > Science and Materials
Pressure distributions at four radial positions measured in the New Mexico project and compared with Ellipsys3D calculations (fully turbulent and transitional) at design conditions (15 m/s)
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Angle of attack in wind tunnel environment
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KARI wind tunnel with scaled down model of Mexico rotor (compare with Figure )
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PIV sheet at “9 o'clock position” in Mexico experiment
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Setup of the (new) Mexico turbine in the measurement section of the DNW LLF
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DNW‐LLF wind tunnel
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NREL Phase VI turbine in NASA Ames wind tunnel
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NASA Ames wind tunnel
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NREL IEA Task 14/18 facility with probes
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Axial velocity as function of radial position for a yaw angle of 30°, 0.15 m downstream of the rotor. Measured in Mexico experiment and calculated by Mexnext participants (measurements start at a radial positon of 1.2 m)
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Airfoil with pressure taps connected to pressure scanner (only a few pressure tubes between tap and scanner are indicated)
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Normal force as function of attack (high angle of attack) as measured by RISØ in the field
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Normal force as function of attack (low angle of attack) as measured by RISØ in the field
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Axial force coefficient versus axial induction factor from New Mexico experiment
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Velocities near the rotor plane as function of axial coordinate at 80% span and Vtun = 15 m/s for six blade azimuth angles, different lines represent different blade positions
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Ratio between ECN calculated and NREL Phase IV measured flatwise moment and rotorshaft torque as function of wind speed
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Ratio between ECN calculated and NREL Phase IV measured normal force (left) and tangential force (right) as function of wind speed at five radial positions
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New Mexico experiment: Tangential force as function of radial position, calculational results from different methodologies
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Radial profile of velocities measured in New Mexico and calculated with Ellipsys3D 0.3 m up and downstream of the rotor at design conditions (tip of the blade at radius = 2.25 m)
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