Home
This Title All WIREs
WIREs RSS Feed
How to cite this WIREs title:
WIREs Energy Environ.
Impact Factor: 3.297

Overview of catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors toward the production of fuels and high‐value chemicals

Full article on Wiley Online Library:   HTML PDF

Can't access this content? Tell your librarian.

The application of heterogeneous catalysis in biomass pyrolysis is considered as one of the most promising methods to improve bio‐oil quality by minimizing its undesirable properties (high viscosity, corrosivity, instability, etc.) and producing renewable fuels and high‐value chemicals. Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass refers both to the “in situ” and “ex situ or two‐stage” upgrading. A plethora of catalytic materials have been investigated in the literature for both approaches, including conventional microporous zeolites, ordered mesoporous aluminosilicates, promoted or not with several transition metals, as well as various metal (nano)oxide catalysts with Lewis acidity. Recently, hybrid micro/mesoporous and basic materials have been also suggested exhibiting most promising results due to combined micro/mesoporosity and adequate balance of acid and basic sites. Optimum catalysts are required to retain deoxygenation, enhance yields of aromatics, and other valuable compounds (such as phenolics), while limiting coke formation. Coke formation is one of the reasons of catalyst deactivation; a very challenging issue during biomass CFP, especially using zeolites. The deactivation process is affected by many factors, including the composition of the feedstock (inorganic minerals present in the feedstock may also deposit on the catalyst), reaction conditions, and the nature/properties of the catalysts used in CFP. Precoking on the surface of zeolites or MgO deposition are among the proposed effective ways to suppress coke formation and thus, catalyst deactivation. This article is categorized under: Bioenergy > Science and Materials Energy Research & Innovation > Science and Materials Energy and Transport > Science and Materials
Simplified pathway showing conversion and deoxygenation of primary pyrolysis vapors to aromatic hydrocarbons (Reprinted with permission from Mullen et al. (). Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Possible impact of ash on the catalyst and on the products in catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass. (Reprinted with permission from Yildiz et al. (). Copyright 2015 Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o‐ and p‐xylenes, ethyl benzene, naphthalene, and 2‐methylnapthalene) and alkyl phenols (phenol, o‐, m,‐ and p‐cresols, 4‐ethyl phenol, and 2,4‐dimethyl phenol) in bio‐oil from HZSM‐5 catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass with different exposure rates of the catalyst to switchgrass. Purple points are representative of concentrations found in thermal only pyrolysis oil, provided for comparison. (Reprinted with permission from Mullen and Boateng (). Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Suggested scheme of chemical reactions for the conversion of bio‐oil to hydrocarbons and coke over metal promoted HZSM‐5 catalysts. (Reprinted with permission from Valle et al. (). Copyright 2012 Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Relative contents of arene over FZ, SZ and RZ. (Reprinted with permission from Zhang et al. (). Copyright 2015 Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Correlation between organic acids and ketones in the various MgO and olivine catalytic bio‐oils. (Reprinted with permission from Stefanidis et al. (). Copyright 2016 Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Distribution of the input carbon over the beech wood pyrolysis products with various metal oxide catalysts (Reprinted with permission from Stefanidis et al. (). Copyright 2011 Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Product yields (wt% on biomass) from catalytic pyrolysis of biomass (beech wood) with mesoporous (alumino)silicate MCM‐41 materials (Reproduced with permission from Iliopoulou et al. (). Copyright 2007 Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Phenols production by noncatalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass (Lignocel (LIG) and Miscantus (MIS) feedstocks) and by in situ catalytic upgrading of the biomass pyrolysis vapors using various mesoporous materials (Reprinted with permission from Antonakou et al. (). Copyright 2006 Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Selectivity of CFP at 650οC of the mesoporous catalysts yielding the highest content of aromatics. (Reprinted with permission from Custodis et al. (). Copyright 2016 John Wiley and Sons)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Variation of the formation of aromatics in the uprading of woody biomass pyrolysis vapors with various metal exhanged meso‐ZSM‐5 catalysts. (Reprinted with permission from Veses et al. (). Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Dual olefin‐based and aromatic‐based cycles for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass over HZSM‐5. (Reprinted with permission from Wang et al., (2014). Copyright 2014 Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Product yields of components in the aromatic phase, of bio‐oil produced by catalytic upgrading of the biomass pyrolysis vapors. (Reprinted with permission from Iliopoulou et al. (). Copyright 2014 Royal Society of Chemistry)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Product yields of various compounds in the organic phase of bio‐oil produced by noncatalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and by catalytic upgrading of the biomass pyrolysis vapors with Ni‐ and Co‐loaded ZSM‐5 zeolitic catalysts (Reprinted with permission from Iliopoulou et al. (). Copyright 2012 Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]

Browse by Topic

Energy and Transport > Science and Materials
Bioenergy > Science and Materials
Energy Research & Innovation > Science and Materials

Access to this WIREs title is by subscription only.

Recommend to Your
Librarian Now!

The latest WIREs articles in your inbox

Sign Up for Article Alerts