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WIREs Energy Environ.
Impact Factor: 3.297

Fischer–Tropsch conversion of biomass‐derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels

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Recent and ongoing research on Fischer–Tropsch catalysts for biomass conversion typically focus on the effects of impurities common in bio‐derived synthesis gas, and also on the effect of different synthesis gas compositions expected from biomass gasifiers. Cobalt and iron catalysts share the sensitivity toward some, but not all of the impurities. The most profound difference is the strong negative effect of alkali, alkaline earth, and nitrogen containing compounds on cobalt catalysts while these impurities have a negligible or no effect on iron catalysts. CO2 appears to mainly act as a diluent in cobalt‐based processes while iron catalysts respond differently to this component depending on catalyst design. In particular, iron catalysts containing Al2O3 as a structural promoter display a high stability, C5+ selectivity, and activity in CO2 rich synthesis gas. This article is categorized under: Bioenergy > Science and Materials
An example of a possible process layout for a Fischer–Tropsch‐biomass to liquid fuel (FTBTL) process including electricity and heat production from the tail gas. Reproduced from Ref Copyright 2005, European Commission.
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A schematic of key components in a Fischer–Tropsch‐biomass to liquid fuel (FTBTL) plant including a gas turbine (combined cycle) for power generation. Reproduced with permission from Ref Copyright 2010, Elsevier.
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Site time yield with increasing alkali impurity loading at 50% CO conversion with a γ‐alumina supported 20 wt% Co, 0.5 wt% Re catalyst. Impurity loading (ppm) actually denotes the weight fraction of impurities in the sample. Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2002, Springer.
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CO reaction rate versus time on stream with H2S addition. Fischer–Tropsch synthesis conditions were 210°C, 20 bar pressure, H2/CO = 2.1, and a 12 wt% Co/0.3 wt% Re/NiAl2O4 catalyst. Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011, Elsevier.
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Typical deactivation profile for cobalt catalysts during Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 1997, Elsevier.
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Calculated conversion profiles for low temperature Fischer–Tropsch (LTFT) operation for cobalt and iron catalysts. Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2002, Elsevier.
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Scale dependency of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) fuel production costs. ∼4000 MW biomass input equals ∼34,000 bbld FT products. Reproduced from Ref Copyright 2007, ECN.
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