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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Urban transport and CO2 emissions: some evidence from Chinese cities

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The work presented below was conducted as part of the World Bank's economic and sector work titled ‘Urban Transport and Climate Change’. It is first a compendium of data—most of it collected as part of the ‘China–GEF–World Bank Urban Transport Partnership Program’—and also provides a preliminary analysis of urban transport characteristics, energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a diverse set of cities in China. This working paper is not in itself intended to be a strategy for urban transport and climate change in China. It is the view of the authors that this research could be an input toward the development of such a strategy in China and more broadly. Although transport in general, and urban transport in particular, is acknowledged to be an important and growing source of GHG emissions, work still needs to be done to develop robust and standardized datasets and frameworks to support a decision‐making process. The paper is intended as a background document to support ongoing discussions about a climate change strategy and to establish a dataset to be made available as a platform for future studies and further refinement. It is hoped that others will take advantage of the dataset created for this study and use it as a basis for projections, comparative analysis, and to test their own hypothesis. Reviewers of this paper have also raised many specific possibilities and interesting ideas for further work, which are summarized in the conclusions. The authors would particularly like to thank AusAID (the Australian Government's overseas aid program), ESMAP (Energy Sector Management Assistance Program), and GEF (Global Environment Facility) who provided partial financing for this work. The authors would also like to acknowledge the management of the World Bank's Sustainable Development units in East Asia & Pacific Region and Latin American & the Caribbean Region for their support. This article is categorized under: Energy Efficiency > Systems and Infrastructure Energy Infrastructure > Systems and Infrastructure Energy and Climate > Systems and Infrastructure
Map of chinese cities included in this study.
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Operational productivity of bus system, 2005–2006.
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Capital productivity of bus system, 2005–2006.
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Percentage of city‐proper population within 500 m bus stop, 2005–2006.
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Public transit network density, 2005–2006.
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Bus fleet (including trolley buses) per 1000 population.
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Ratio of private motorized vehicles versus total center lane kilometers.
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Ratio of city‐proper road length (km) per thousand population.
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Private motorized vehicles per 1000 population and average disposable income.
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Ratio of private motorized vehicles (including company cars) over total fleet.
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Private motorized vehicles (including company cars) per 1000 people.
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Evolution of mode shares of trips.
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(2) Daily linked mode shares of trips in city‐proper.
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(1) Daily unlinked mode shares of trips in city‐proper.
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Trip rate and income.
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Trip distances by mode.
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|Average annual percentage change of trips per capita.
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Trends in trip rates by mode.
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Average annual percentage change of trips.
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City projections for 2020 under different carbon pathways.
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Potential CO2 pathways for urban transport with respect to economic output.
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Comparison of normalized indicators of CO2 emissions.
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Annual per capita CO2 emissions in urban areas.
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Annual CO2 emissions and energy consumed in urban area.
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Average new vehicle fuel efficiency standards. Reproduced from Ref 12. Copyright 2007, IEA.
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Shares of government infrastructure investment in PT.
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Vehicle‐km growth and potential drivers.
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Evolution of mode shares by person‐trips.
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Trends in trip rates by mode.
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Change in major urban transport drivers under identity (2).
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Decomposition of major drivers of CO2 emissions under identity (1).
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Average annual change in disposable income, 2002–2006.
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Growth in economic output.
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Population and population density trends.
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