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Exploratory data analysis

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Abstract Exploratory data analysis, or EDA for short, is a term coined by John W. Tukey for describing the act of looking at data to see what it seems to say. This article gives a description of some typical EDA procedures and discusses some of the principles of EDA. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. This article is categorized under: Statistical and Graphical Methods of Data Analysis > Statistical Graphics and Visualization

The left‐hand panel shows the plot of the logarithm of the ratio of half‐spreads versus and , respectively. Using allows one to separate the two tails. Only 0 < α< 0.05 are shown. The resulting values for the parameters are s = 0.011, h = 0.185 (lower tail) and s = 0.0083, h = 0.275 (upper tail). The right‐hand panel shows the QQ‐plot from Figure 7 again, this time with the fitted h‐distribution superposed.

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Four ways of depicting the distribution of a batch of numbers.

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The left‐hand panel shows the raw data, the right‐hand panel shows the smooth obtained by the smoother 3PR. Compare this smooth with the one in Figure 5.

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The left‐hand panel shows the raw data, the farm prices for wheat between 1955 and 2005 (see http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/ Feedgrains/). The right‐hand panel shows the smoothed sequence.

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The residuals obtained from a median polish are plotted against the substance effects, rij versus dj. The polar stationary phases are ordered by effect size. The last plot shows in parallel the box plot of the original retention data and the box plot of the residuals after removal of the median effects.

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The retention effect for the 127 substances. The substances are ordered by median value. The observations are for a temperature of the 130 °C. Note that each box plot provides a summary of only seven numbers. With such small batch sizes, alternative displays that show all the data would be feasible.

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The effect of seven polar stationary phases on the retention of 127 substances. The observations are for a temperature of 130 °C. The data have been re‐expressed on the logarithmic scale.

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The effect of seven polar stationary phases on the retention of 127 substances. The observations are for a temperature of 130 °C. The exceptional substances in the case of the stationary phase labeled TMO are benzyl alcohol and 2‐phenylethanol.

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