1 United States Patent and Trademark Office.Eighth technology assessment and forecast report. Section II: 37. http://www.ntis.gov. (Accessed July 10, 2010). NTIS Order Number PB276375;1977.
2 UN Millennium Project.Innovation: Applying Knowledge in Development. Task Force on Science, Technology, and Innovation.London: Earthscan
3 Aubert, J.Promoting Innovation in Developing Countries: A Conceptual Framework.World Bank Policy Research Working Paper
4 Freeman, C.Continental, national and sub‐national innovation systems for global health.Res Policy2002,31:191–211.
5 Morel, C,Acharya, T,Broun, D,Dangi, A,Elias, C,Ganguly, N,Gardner, C,Gupta, R,Haycock, J,Heher, A, et al.Health innovation networks to help developing countries address neglected diseases.Science2005,309:401–404.
6 Gardner, C,Acharya, T,Yach, D.Technological and social innovation: a unifying new paradigm for global health.Health Affairs2007,26:1052–1061.
7 Committee on Development and Intellectual Property. Development Agenda of WIPO. Available at: http://www.wipo.int/ip‐development/en/agenda/ (Accessed October, 2007).
8 McCarthy, JT,Schechter, RE,Franklyn, DJ.McCarthy`s Desk Encyclopedia of Intellectual Property.3rd ed.
Washington, DC: The Bureau of National Affairs
9 CAMBIA Intellectual Property Resource. How to read a patent. Available at: http://www.patentlens.net/daisy/patentlens/202.html. (Accessed January 28, 2012).
10 Ernst, H.Patent information for strategic technology management.World Patent Information2003,25:233–242.
11 Kowalski, SP.%22Freedom to operate: the preparations%22. In:Krattiger, A,Mahoney, RT,Nelsen, L,Thomson, JA,Bennett, AB,Satyanarayana, K,Graff, GD,Fernandez, C,Kowalski, SP eds.Intellectual Property Management in Health and Agricultural Innovation: A Handbook of Best Practices.Oxford, UK, Davis: MIHR, PIPRA
;2007. Available online at www.ipHandbook.org.
12 Tijssen, R.Is the commercialization of scientific research affecting the production of public knowledge?: global trends in the output of corporate research articles.Res Pol2004, 33:709–733.
13 Sternitzke, C.Patents and publications as sources of novel and inventive knowledge.Scientometrics2009, 79: 551–561.
14 Clark, K,Cavicchi, J,Jensen, K,Fitzgerald, R,Bennett, A,Kowalski, SP.Patent data mining: a tool for accelerating HIV vaccine innovation.Vaccine2011,31;29:4086–4093
15 Karki, M.Patent citation analysis: a policy analysis tool.World Patent Information1997,19:1997,269–272.
16 Campos Moreira, A,Almeida Müller, A,Pereira, N,Souza Antunes, A.Pharmaceutical patents on plant derived materials in Brazil: Policy, law and statistics.World Patent Information2006,28:34–42.
17 Schwander, P.An evaluation of patent searching resources: comparing the professional and free on‐line databases.World Patent Information2000,22:147–165.
18 Taeus International Corporation. Diving deep into patent data. Available at: http://www.taeus.com/article.php?id=66. (Accessed August 14,2011).
19 Carterette, B,Voorhees, E.%22Overview of information retrieval evaluation%22. In:Lupu, M,Mayer, K,Tait, J,Trippe, AJ, eds.Current Challenges in Patent Information Retrieval. The Information Retrieval Series.Vol. 29.Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer
;2011, Chapter 3, 69–86.
20 Trippe, A,Ruthven, I.%22Evaluating real patent retrieval effectiveness%22. In:Lupu, M,Mayer, K,Tait, J,Trippe, A, eds.Current Challenges in Patent Information Retrieval. Vol.29.Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer
21 Kryder, R,Kowalski, S,Krattiger, A.The Intellectual and Technical Property Components of Pro‐vitamin A Rice (GoldenRice). A Preliminary Freedom‐to‐Operate Review. Brief No. 20,Ithaca, NY: ISSAA
22 Kowalski, SP,Kryder, RD.Golden rice: a case study in intellectual property management and international capacity building.RISK; Health, Safety and Environment2002, 13:47–67.
23 Heller, M,Eisenberg, R.Can patents deter innovation? The anticommons in biomedical research.Science1998,280:698–701.
24 Holman, C.Clearing a path through the patent thicket.Cell2006,125:629–633.
25 Enserink, M.Tough lessons from golden rice.Science.2008;320:468–471.
26 Tortora, B,Rheault, M.Mobile phone access varies widely in Sub‐Saharan Africa‐Gallup. Available at: http://www.gallup.com/poll/149519/mobile‐phone‐access‐varies‐widely‐sub‐saharan‐africa.aspx?version=print. (Accessed September, 2011).
27 Aker, J.Center for Global Development Notes. Can you hear me now? How cell phones are transforming markets in Sub‐Saharan Africa. Available at: http://www.cgdev.org/files/894409_file_Aker_Cell_Phone_Niger.pdf. (Accessed October 2008).
28 The economist. Not just talk. Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/18008202. (Accessed January 27, 2011).
29 Mahoney, R.Public private partnership in the development of the hepatitis B vaccine in Korea: implications for developing countries.Sci Technol Soc2005,10:129.
30 Mahoney, R.%22DNA hepatitis B vaccine: International Vaccine Institute, Korea%22. In:Krattiger, KA,Mahoney, RT,Nelsen, L,Thomson, JA,Bennett, AB,Satyanarayana, K,Graff, GD,Fernandez, C,Kowalski, SP, eds.Intellectual Property Management in Health and Agricultural Innovation: A Handbook of Best Practices.Oxford, UK, Davis: MIHR, PIPRA
;2007,131–144. Available online at www.ipHandbook.org.
31 Bermudez, J,`t Hoen, E.The UNITAID patent pool initiative: bringing patents together for the common good open.AIDS J2010,4:37–40.
32 Michelle Childs* towards a patent pool for HIV medicines: the background open.AIDS J2010,4:33–36.
33 Jadhav, S,Gautam, M,Gairola, S.Emerging markets and emerging needs: developing countries vaccine manufacturers` perspective and its current status.Biologicals2009,37:165–168.
34 Takagi, Y,Czajkowski, A.WIPO services for access to patent information–—building patent information infrastructure and capacity in LDCs and developing countries.World Patent Information2012,34:30–36.
35 Committee on Development and Intellectual Property. The 45 adopted recommendations under the WIPO Development Agenda. Available at: http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/ipdevelopment/en/agenda/recommendations.pdf. (Accessed February 2, 2012).
36 African Regional Workshop on Science.Technology and Innovation.Hosted by The Republic of South Africa Department of Science and Technology, the World Bank Institute and the Embassy of Finland
.Johannesburg, South Africa. 19–20 March,2009.
37 Magerman, T.Impact and Consequences of Science‐Intensive Patenting: In Search of Anti‐Commons Evidence Using Latent Semantic Analysis Text Mining Techniques. PhD dissertation.Luven, Belgium: University of Leuven
38 African Regional Workshop on Science, Technology and Innovation. Available at: http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/250813/STI%20Workshop%20report.pdf. (Accessed March, 2009).