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WIREs Data Mining Knowl Discov
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An overview on the exploitation of time in collaborative filtering

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Classic Collaborative Filtering (CF) algorithms rely on the assumption that data are static and we usually disregard the temporal effects in natural user‐generated data. These temporal effects include user preference drifts and shifts, seasonal effects, inclusion of new users, and items entering the system—and old ones leaving—user and item activity rate fluctuations and other similar time‐related phenomena. These phenomena continuously change the underlying relations between users and items that recommendation algorithms essentially try to capture. In the past few years, a new generation of CF algorithms has emerged, using the time dimension as a key factor to improve recommendation models. In this overview, we present a comprehensive analysis of these algorithms and identify important challenges to be faced in the near future. WIREs Data Mining Knowl Discov 2015, 5:195–215. doi: 10.1002/widm.1160

Example of feedback matrices: (a) a typical numerical ratings matrix and (b) a positive‐only ratings matrix.
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CANDECOMP/PARAFAC tensor factorization model: three matrices are obtained covering the same latent feature space f1 … k. The time‐related dimension t1tl is a time feature extracted from the ratings timestamp—e.g., day of week, month, and hour of day. Every cell in the original tensor can be predicted using the inner product of the three corresponding vectors R^uit=d=1kUudIidTtd.
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Algorithmic Development > Spatial and Temporal Data Mining
Application Areas > Data Mining Software Tools

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