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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
Impact Factor: 4.761

Nanoimaging and neurological surgery

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Over 32 million surgical procedures are performed in the United States each year. Increasingly, image guidance is used in order to aid in the surgical localization of pathology, minimization of incisions, and improvement of surgical intervention outcomes. A variety of imaging modalities using different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum are used in neurological surgery. These include wavelengths used in ultrasonography, optical, infrared, ionizing radiation, and magnetic resonance. The use of currently available image‐guidance tools for neurological surgery is reviewed. Advances in nanoparticulates and their integration into the neurosurgical operating room environment are discussed. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2010 2 601–617

Figure 1.

Representative operating room is set up for a craniotomy with optical tracking camera and computer display for stereotactic surgical navigation.

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Figure 2.

Closeup of computer display for surgical navigation shows a large left frontal lobe brain tumor. Cross hatches on the screen represent the location of the optical pointer during surgical resection of the tumor.

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Figure 3.

Representative nanoparticles that can serve as nanoplatforms for targeted molecular imaging in living subjects are shown.

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Figure 4.

Intravenous delivery of QDs via tail vein injections in rat subcutaneous tumor model show the accumulation of QDs 24 h post‐injection.

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Figure 5.

Photomicroscopy of rat subcutaneous tumor shown in Figure 4 shows red fluorescent QDs within the green CDllb‐positive macrophages and microglia. Some QDs are also seen in the 4′,6‐diamidino‐2‐phenylindole (DAPI)‐counterstained tumor cells from tumor autophagy of the QDs.

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Figure 6.

Preoperative gadolinium‐enhanced (a), USPIO‐enhanced (b), and intraoperative USPIO‐enhanced T1‐weighted MR images (c) from patient with a malignant brain tumor. Panels (b) and (c) were obtained approximately 24 h after USPIO administration.

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Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanoscale Tools and Techniques in Surgery

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Mauro Ferrari

Mauro Ferrari

started out in mechanical engineering and became interested in nanotechnology with his studies on nanomechanics and nanofluidics. His research work and involvement with setting up some of the premier nano centers and alliances in the world, bringing together universities, hospitals, and federal agencies, showcases interdisciplinarity at work.

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