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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Nanoimaging and neurological surgery

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Over 32 million surgical procedures are performed in the United States each year. Increasingly, image guidance is used in order to aid in the surgical localization of pathology, minimization of incisions, and improvement of surgical intervention outcomes. A variety of imaging modalities using different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum are used in neurological surgery. These include wavelengths used in ultrasonography, optical, infrared, ionizing radiation, and magnetic resonance. The use of currently available image‐guidance tools for neurological surgery is reviewed. Advances in nanoparticulates and their integration into the neurosurgical operating room environment are discussed. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2010 2 601–617

Figure 1.

Representative operating room is set up for a craniotomy with optical tracking camera and computer display for stereotactic surgical navigation.

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Figure 2.

Closeup of computer display for surgical navigation shows a large left frontal lobe brain tumor. Cross hatches on the screen represent the location of the optical pointer during surgical resection of the tumor.

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Figure 3.

Representative nanoparticles that can serve as nanoplatforms for targeted molecular imaging in living subjects are shown.

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Figure 4.

Intravenous delivery of QDs via tail vein injections in rat subcutaneous tumor model show the accumulation of QDs 24 h post‐injection.

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Figure 5.

Photomicroscopy of rat subcutaneous tumor shown in Figure 4 shows red fluorescent QDs within the green CDllb‐positive macrophages and microglia. Some QDs are also seen in the 4′,6‐diamidino‐2‐phenylindole (DAPI)‐counterstained tumor cells from tumor autophagy of the QDs.

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Figure 6.

Preoperative gadolinium‐enhanced (a), USPIO‐enhanced (b), and intraoperative USPIO‐enhanced T1‐weighted MR images (c) from patient with a malignant brain tumor. Panels (b) and (c) were obtained approximately 24 h after USPIO administration.

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Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanoscale Tools and Techniques in Surgery
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In the Spotlight

James F. Leary

James F. Leary
has been contributing to nanomedical research and technologies throughout his career. Such contributions include the invention of high-speed flow cytometry, cell sorting techniques, and rare-event methods. Dr. Leary’s current research spans across three general areas in nanomedicine. The first is the development of high-throughput single-cell flow cytometry and cell sorting technologies. The second explores BioMEMS technologies. These include miniaturized cell sorters, portable devices for detection of microbial pathogens in food and water, and artificial human “organ-on-a-chip” technologies which consists of developing cell culture chips capable of simulating the activities and mechanics of entire organs and organ systems. His third area of research aims at developing smart nano-engineered systems for single-cell drug or gene delivery for nanomedicine. Dr. Leary currently holds nine issued U.S. Patents with four currently pending, and he has received NIH funding for over 25 years.

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