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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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DNA‐tailored plasmonic nanoparticles for biosensing applications

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Abstract The plasmonic properties of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) such as Au and Ag NPs and the plasmonic coupling between them are of enormous interest for their strong and controllable optical signal enhancement and manipulation capabilities. The strong optical properties of these plasmonic structures are promising for various biosensing applications, but the widespread use of these structures is limited largely due to the absence of high‐yield synthetic method for targeted nanoprobes with nanometer precision and the poor understanding of the plasmonics of these structures. DNA is a promising material that can be used as both specific biorecognition and versatile synthetic template in forming and controlling plasmonic nanostructures and their aggregations. In this article, we provide an overview and perspective of recent advances in the use of DNA‐tailored plasmonic nanostructures in biosensing applications. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2013, 5:96–109. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1196 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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Colorimetric assays for detection of various biomolecules with DNA‐tailored gold nanoparticles (NPs). (a) In the presence of target DNA, probe DNA‐modified AuNPs generate color change from red to blue due to particle aggregation and this change can be monitored by the UV‐Vis spectroscopy. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 46. Copyright 2000 American Chemical Society) (b) Folding of aptamers with target molecule‐induced dehybridization process for detection of adenosine or cocaine. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 50. Copyright 2005 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA) (c) Assembly or disassembly can be induced by pH change with cytosine‐rich DNA‐modified AuNPs using i‐motif quadruplex structure formation via the protonation of cytosine. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 57. Copyright 2007 Royal Society of Chemistry) (d) Label‐free colorimetric sensor without premodification of DNA on AuNPs. In colloidal solution, single‐stranded DNA (ssDNA) can prevent AuNP aggregation because of the interaction between surface of AuNPs and exposed bases of partially uncoiled ssDNA. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 58. Copyright 2002 National Academy of Sciences)

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(a) Ultrasensitive detection of DNA by PNA and nanoparticle (NP)‐enhanced surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging. PNA activates target hybridization process efficiency, and AuNP amplifies change in the refractive index of surface. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 110. Copyright 2008 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA) (b) By combining surface enzyme manipulation and DNA‐coated NPs with NP‐enhanced SPR imaging, various types of sensitive biosensing applications can be achieved. The mesophilic DNA polymerase is introduced to this system and it was possible to see as little as 10–100 amol of polymerase product. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 113. Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society)

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(a) A scheme showing the increased sensitivity of DNA microarrays by metal‐enhanced fluorescence (MEF) using surface‐bound silver nanoparticles (NPs). A 28‐fold‐enhanced fluorescence signal was obtained with metal NP‐amplification. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 84. Copyright 2007 Oxford University Press) (b) AuNP‐based multicolor nanobeacons for sequence‐specific DNA analysis. Quenched fluorescence signals were recovered by introducing DNA markers. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 89. Copyright 2009 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA) (c) DNA‐silver nanocluster probe‐based fluorescent target DNA detection sensor. Guanine‐rich DNA sequences, in proximity to AgNCs, can enhance red fluorescence signal by 500‐folds. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 98. Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society) (d) AuNP‐enhanced fluorescence polarization value‐based assay scheme. AuNP‐bound fluorophore experiences slow rotation, polarization, and high anisotropy. Combined with target‐specific activity of DNA and DNAzyme, this scheme can be applied to the detection of particular metal ions. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 102. Copyright 2010 Elsevier)

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Schematic and results of surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)‐based detection methods. (a) SERS‐based multiplexed DNA detection assay using Raman‐active DNA‐modified AuNPs and silver nanoshell formation. Various DNA targets can be identified via different Raman dye labeling. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 67. Copyright 2002 AAAS) (b) Schematic illustration for the detection of single‐stranded DNA (ssDNA). After target DNA strand is sandwich‐captured by AgNP probe and Ag film, DNA detection was confirmed by the SERS signal of the Raman dye located within the plasmonically enhanced gap between AgNP and Ag film. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 70. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society) (c) Nanogap‐engineerable nanostructures for single molecules detection by SERS. In this method, Ag shell can be controlled at nanometer scale to finely engineer the Raman‐signal‐amplifying plasmonic nanogap between two core‐shell particles. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) image shows 5‐nm Ag shell case containing approximately 1‐nm interparticle gap. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 25. Copyright 2009 NPG) (d) A scheme and TEM images of gold nanostructures containing approximately 1‐nm interior nanogap. Raman dyes can be precisely located within the gap and the number of modified dyes can be controlled. The time‐dependent Raman signal profiles indicate highly uniform and reproducible signal can be generated from these interior nanogap structures. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 26. Copyright 2011 NPG)

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Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing
Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing
Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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