1 Riviere, JE. Pharmacokinetics of nanomaterials: an overview of carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and quantum dots. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2009, 1:26–34.
2 MacPhail, RC, Grulke, EA, Yokel, RA. Assessing nanoparticle risk poses prodigious challenges. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2012. Submitted for publication.
3 Weller, RO, Djuanda, E, Yow, H‐Y, Carare, RO. Lymphatic drainage of the brain and the pathophysiology of neurological disease. Acta Neuropathol 2009, 117:1–14.
4 Muldoon, LL, Varallyay, P, Kraemer, DF, Kiwic, G, Pinkston, K, Walker‐Rosenfeld, SL, Neuwelt, EA. Trafficking of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (Combidex) from brain to lymph nodes in the rat. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2004, 30:70–79.
5 Verkhratsky, A, Butt, A, eds. Glial Neurobiology. Chichester, England: Wiley
6 Azevedo, FA, Carvalho, LR, Grinberg, LT, Farfel, JM, Ferretti, RE, Leite, RE, Jacob Filho, W, Lent, R, Herculano‐Houzel, S. Equal numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells make the human brain an isometrically scaled‐up primate brain. J Comp Neurol 2009, 513:532–541.
7 Sherwood, CC, Stimpson, CD, Raghanti, MA, Wildman, DE, Uddin, M, Grossman, LI, Goodman, M, Redmond, JC, Bonar, CJ, Erwin, JM, et al. Evolution of increased glia‐neuron ratios in the human frontal cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006, 103:13606–13611.
8 Abitz, M, Nielsen, RD, Jones, EG, Laursen, H, Graem, N, Pakkenberg, B. Excess of neurons in the human newborn mediodorsal thalamus compared with that of the adult. Cereb Cortex 2007, 17:2573–2578.
9 Kandel, E, Schwartz, J, Jessell, T, Siegelbaum, S, Hudspeth, AJ. Principles of Neural Science. New York: McGraw‐Hill Ryerson;
vol. 5. 2012.
10 Rippel, RA, Seifalian, AM. Gold revolution–gold nanoparticles for modern medicine and surgery. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2011, 11:3740–3748.
11 Eastman, J. %22Colloid stability%22. In: Cosgrove, T, ed. Colloid science ‐ Principles, Methods and Applications. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell Publishing
; 2005, 36–49.
12 Leaver, J. %22Protein adsorption on latex particles%22. In: Schwarz, JA, Contescu, CI, eds. Surfaces of Nanoparticles and Porous Materials. New York: Marcel Dekker
; 1999, 743–762.
13 Somasundaran, P, Markovic, B, Krishnakumar, S, Yu, X. %22Colloid systems and interfaces ‐ stability of dispersion through polymer and surfactant adsorption%22. In: Birdi, KS, ed. Handbook of Surface and Colloid Chemistry. Boca Raton: CRC Press
; 1997, 155–196.
14 De, TK, Maitra, A. %22Particle engineering of drug‐loaded nanoparticles and their potential drug‐targeting applications%22. In: Birdi, KS, ed. Handbook of Surface and Colloid Chemistry, 2nd ed.
Boca Raton: CRC Press
15 Pochan, DJ, Zhu, J, Zhang, K, Wooley, KL, Miesch, C, Emrick, T. Multicompartment and multigeometry nanoparticle assembly. Soft Matter 2011, 7:2500–2506.
16 Lee, M‐Y, Park, S‐J, Park, K, Kim, KS, Lee, H, Hahn, SK. Target‐specific gene silencing of layer‐by‐layer assembled gold‐cysteamine/siRNA/PEI/HA nanocomplex. ACS Nano 2011, 5:6138–6147.
17 Liu, Y, Sun, J, Han, J, He, Z. Long‐circulating targeted nanoparticles for cancer therapy. Curr Nanosci 2010, 6:347–354.
18 Cho, W‐S, Cho, M‐J, Jeong, J‐Y, Choi, M‐N, Han, B‐S, Shin, H‐S, Hong, J, Chung, B‐H, Jeong, J‐Y, Cho, M‐H. Size‐dependent tissue kinetics of PEG‐coated gold nanoparticles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2010, 245:116–123.
19 Gaston, B, Reilly, J, Drazen, JM, Fackler, J, Ramdev, P, Arnelle, D, Mullins, ME, Sugarbaker, DJ, Chee, C, Singel, DJ. Endogenous nitrogen oxides and bronchodilator S‐nitrosothiols in human airways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993, 90:10957–10961.
20 Santos, RR, Vermeulen, S, Haritova, A, Fink‐Gremmels, J. Isotherm modeling of organic activated bentonite and humic acid polymer used as mycotoxin adsorbents. Food Addit Contam, Part A 2011, 28:1578–1589.
21 Hongo, M, Ohara, S, Hirasawa, Y, Abe, S, Asaki, S, Toyota, T. Effect of lansoprazole on intragastric pH. Comparison between morning and evening dosing. Dig Dis Sci 1992, 37:882–890.
22 Fallingborg, J, Christensen, LA, Jacobsen, BA, Ingeman‐Nielsen, M, Rasmussen, HH, Abildgaard, K, Rasmussen, SN. Effect of olsalazine and mesalazine on intraluminal pH of the duodenum and proximal jejunum in healthy humans. Scand J Gastroenterol 1994, 29:498–500.
23 Bergstrom, CA, Luthman, K, Artursson, P. Accuracy of calculated pH‐dependent aqueous drug solubility. Eur J Pharm Sci 2004, 22:387–398.
24 Zarate, N, Mohammed, SD, O`Shaughnessy, E, Newell, M, Yazaki, E, Williams, NS, Lunniss, PJ, Semler, JR, Scott, SM. Accurate localization of a fall in pH within the ileocecal region: validation using a dual‐scintigraphic technique. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2010, 299:G1276–G1286.
25 Chesler, M. Regulation and modulation of pH in the brain. Physiol Rev 2003, 83:1183–1221.
26 Scott, CC, Gruenberg, J. Ion flux and the function of endosomes and lysosomes: pH is just the start. Bioessays 2011, 33:103–110.
27 Wojtkowiak, JW, Verduzco, D, Schramm, KJ, Gillies, RJ. Drug resistance and cellular adaptation to tumor acidic pH microenvironment. Mol Pharm 2011, 8:2032–2038.
28 Derfus, AM, Chan, WCW, Bhatia, SN. Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots. Nano Lett 2004, 4:11–18.
29 Garza‐Ocanas, L, Ferrer, DA, Burt, J, Diaz‐Torres, LA, Ramirez Cabrera, M, Rodriguez, VT, Lujan Rangel, R, Romanovicz, D, Jose‐Yacaman, M. Biodistribution and long‐term fate of silver nanoparticles functionalized with bovine serum albumin in rats. Metallomics 2010, 2:204–210.
30 Deng, X, Luan, Q, Chen, W, Wang, Y, Wu, M, Zhang, H, Jiao, Z. Nanosized zinc oxide particles induce neural stem cell apoptosis. Nanotechnology 2009, 20:115101.
31 Lin, CH, Chang, LW, Chang, H, Yang, MH, Yang, CS, Lai, WH, Chang, WH, Lin, P. The chemical fate of the Cd/Se/Te‐based quantum dot 705 in the biological system: toxicity implications. Nanotechnology 2009, doi:20:215101/1‐215101/9.
32 Wankhede, M, Bouras, A, Kaluzova, M, Hadjipanayis, CG. Magnetic nanoparticles: an emerging technology for malignant brain tumor imaging and therapy. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2012, 5:173–186.
33 Maier‐Hauff, K, Rothe, R, Scholz, R, Gneveckow, U, Wust, P, Thiesen, B, Feussner, A, von Deimling, A, Waldoefner, N, Felix, R, et al. Intracranial thermotherapy using magnetic nanoparticles combined with external beam radiotherapy: results of a feasibility study on patients with glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol 2007, 81:53–60.
34 Ghosh, S, Ghosh, MS, Cai, T, Diercks, DR, Mills, NC, Hynds, DL. Alternating magnetic field controlled, multifunctional nano‐reservoirs: intracellular uptake and improved biocompatibility. Nanoscale Res Lett 2010, 5:195–204.
35 Celardo, I, Traversa, E, Ghibelli, L. Cerium oxide nanoparticles; a promise for applications in therapy. J Exp Ther Oncol 2011, 9:47–51.
36 Neuwelt, EA, Varallyay, P, Bago, AG, Muldoon, LL, Nesbit, G, Nixon, R. Imaging of iron oxide nanoparticles by MR and light microscopy in patients with malignant brain tumours. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2004, 30:456–471.
37 Neuwelt, EA, Varallyay, CG, Manninger, S, Solymosi, D, Haluska, M, Hunt, MA, Nesbit, G, Stevens, A, Jerosch‐Herold, M, Jacobs, PM, et al. The potential of ferumoxytol nanoparticle magnetic resonance imaging, perfusion, and angiography in central nervous system malignancy: a pilot study (discussion). Neurosurgery 2007, 60:601–611.
38 Maier‐Hauff, K, Ulrich, F, Nestler, D, Niehoff, H, Wust, P, Thiesen, B, Orawa, H, Budach, V, Jordan, A. Efficacy and safety of intratumoral thermotherapy using magnetic iron‐oxide nanoparticles combined with external beam radiotherapy on patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol 2011, 103:317–324.
39 Hillyer, JF, Albrecht, RM. Gastrointestinal persorption and tissue distribution of differently sized colloidal gold nanoparticles. J Pharm Sci 2001, 90:1927–1936.
40 Monteiro‐Riviere, NA, Filon, FL. %22Skin%22. In: Fadeel, BP, Pietroiusti, A, Shvedova, AA, eds. Adverse Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Missouri: Elsevier;
41 Choi, HS, Liu, W, Misra, P, Tanaka, E, Zimmer, JP, Itty Ipe, B, Bawendi, MG, Frangioni, JV. Renal clearance of quantum dots. Nat Biotechnol 2007, 25:1165–1170.
42 Ohno, K, Pettigrew, KD, Rapoport, SI. Lower limits of cerebrovascular permeability to nonelectrolytes in the conscious rat. Am J Physiol 1978, 235:H299–H307.
43 Bondy, SC. Nanoparticles and colloids as contributing factors in neurodegenerative disease. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011, 8:2200–2211.
44 Tsai, PS, Kaufhold, JP, Blinder, P, Friedman, B, Drew, PJ, Karten, HJ, Lyden, PD, Kleinfeld, D. Correlations of neuronal and microvascular densities in murine cortex revealed by direct counting and colocalization of nuclei and vessels. J Neurosci 2009, 29:14553–14570.
45 Vorbrodt, AW. Ultracytochemical characterization of anionic sites in the wall of brain capillaries. J Neurocytol 1989, 18:359–368.
46 Georgieva, JV, Kalicharan, D, Couraud, P‐O, Romero, IA, Weksler, B, Hoekstra, D, Zuhorn, IS. Surface characteristics of nanoparticles determine their intracellular fate in and processing by human blood‐brain barrier endothelial cells in vitro
. Mol Ther 2011, 19:318–325.
47 Tang, J, Xiong, L, Zhou, G, Wang, S, Wang, J, Liu, L, Li, J, Yuan, F, Lu, S, Wan, Z, et al. Silver nanoparticles crossing through and distribution in the blood‐brain barrier in vitro
. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2010, 10:6313–6317.
48 Dan, M, Tseng, MT, Wu, P, Unrine, JM, Grulke, EA, Yokel, RA. Brain microvascular endothelial cell association and distribution of a 5 nm ceria engineered nanomateria. Int J Nanomed 2012, 7:4023–4036.
49 Rapoport, SI. Advances in osmotic opening of the blood‐brain barrier to enhance CNS chemotherapy. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2001, 10:1809–1818.
50 Hynynen, K, McDannold, N, Vykhodtseva, N, Raymond, S, Weissleder, R, Jolesz, FA, Sheikov, N. Focal disruption of the blood‐brain barrier due to 260‐kHz ultrasound bursts: a method for molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery. J Neurosurg 2006, 105:445–454.
51 Liu, H‐L, Hua, M‐Y, Yang, H‐W, Huang, C‐Y, Chu, P‐C, Wu, J‐S, Tseng, IC, Wang, J‐J, Yen, T‐C, Chen, P‐Y, et al. Magnetic resonance monitoring of focused ultrasound/magnetic nanoparticle targeting delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010, 107:15205–15210. doi:S15205/15201‐S15205/15207.
52 Takeda, K, Suzuki, K‐i, Ishihara, A, Kubo‐Irie, M, Fujimoto, R, Tabata, M, Oshio, S, Nihei, Y, Ihara, T, Sugamata, M. Nanoparticles transferred from pregnant mice to their offspring can damage the genital and cranial nerve systems. J Health Sci 2009, 55:95–102.
53 Hunter, DD, Undem, BJ. Identification and substance P content of vagal afferent neurons innervating the epithelium of the guinea pig trachea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999, 159:1943–1948.
54 Estevanato, L, Cintra, D, Baldini, N, Portilho, F, Barbosa, L, Martins, O, Lacava, B, Miranda‐Vilela, AL, Tedesco, AC, Bao, S, et al. Preliminary biocompatibility investigation of magnetic albumin nanosphere designed as a potential versatile drug delivery system. Int J Nanomedicine 2011, 6:1709–1717.
55 Cambianica, I, Bossi, M, Gasco, P, Gonzalez, W, Idee, JM, Miserocchi, G, Rigolio, R, Chanana, M, Morjan, I, Wang, D, et al. Targeting cells with MR imaging probes: Cellular interaction and intracellular magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles uptake in brain capillary endothelial and choroidal plexus epithelial cells. AIP Conf Proc 2010, 1275:145–149.
56 Wittendorp‐Rechenmann, E, Namer, IJ, Steibel, J, Lam, DC, Pouliquen, D. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles containing liposomes as potential specific contrast agent for brain MR imaging: initial feasibility study by a combined approach with 59
Fe‐activated track‐autoradiography. J Trace Microprobe Tech 1998, 16:523–534.
57 Nau, R, Soergel, F, Eiffert, H. Penetration of drugs through the blood‐cerebrospinal fluid/blood‐brain barrier for treatment of central nervous system infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 2010, 23:858–883.
58 Felgenhauer, K. Protein filtration and secretion at human body fluid barriers. Pfluegers Arch 1980, 384:9–17.
59 Yokel, RA, Au, TC, MacPhail, R, Hardas, SS, Butterfield, DA, Sultana, R, Tseng, MT, Dan, M, Florence, RL, Unrine, JM, et al. Distribution, elimination and biopersistence to 90 days of a systemically‐introduced 30 nm ceria engineered nanomaterial in rats. Toxicol Sci 2012, 127:256–268.
60 de Lorenzo, AJD. %22The olfactory neuron and the blood‐brain barrier%22. In: Wolstenholme, G, Knight, J, eds. Taste and Smell in Vertebrates. London: Churchhill
; 1970, 151–176.
61 Oberdörster, G, Sharp, Z, Atudorei, V, Elder, A, Gelein, R, Kreyling, W, Cox, C. Translocation of inhaled ultrafine particles to the brain. Inhal Toxicol 2004, 16:437–445.
62 Elder, A, Gelein, R, Silva, V, Feikert, T, Opanashuk, L, Carter, J, Potter, R, Maynard, A, Ito, Y, Finkelstein, J, et al. Translocation of inhaled ultrafine manganese oxide particles to the central nervous system. Environ Health Perspect 2006, 114:1172–1178.
63 Gao, X, Chen, J, Chen, J, Wu, B, Chen, H, Jiang, X. Quantum dots bearing lectin‐functionalized nanoparticles as a platform for in vivo brain imaging. Bioconjug Chem 2008, 19:2189–2195.
64 Yu, LE, Yung, L‐YL, Ong, C‐N, Tan, Y‐L, Balasubramaniam, KS, Hartono, D, Shui, G, Wenk, MR, Ong, W‐Y. Translocation and effects of gold nanoparticles after inhalation exposure in rats. Nanotoxicology 2007, 1:235–242.
65 Sung, JH, Ji, JH, Park, JD, Song, MY, Song, KS, Ryu, HR, Yoon, JU, Jeon, KS, Jeong, J, Han, BS, et al. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles. Part Fibre Toxicol 2011, 8:16.
66 Wang, J, Chen, C, Liu, Y, Jiao, F, Li, W, Lao, F, Li, Y, Li, B, Ge, C, Zhou, G, et al. Potential neurological lesion after nasal instillation of TiO2
nanoparticles in the anatase and rutile crystal phases. Toxicol Lett 2008, 183:72–80.
67 Wang, J, Liu, Y, Jiao, F, Lao, F, Li, W, Gu, Y, Li, Y, Ge, C, Zhou, G, Li, B, et al. Time‐dependent translocation and potential impairment on central nervous system by intranasally instilled TiO2
nanoparticles. Toxicology 2008, 254:82–90.
68 Wang, B, Feng, W, Zhu, M, Wang, Y, Wang, M, Gu, Y, Ouyang, H, Wang, H, Li, M, Zhao, Y, et al. Neurotoxicity of low‐dose repeatedly intranasal instillation of nano‐ and submicron‐sized ferric oxide particles in mice. J Nanopart Res 2009, 11:41–53.
69 Wang, Y, Wang, B, Zhu, MT, Li, M, Wang, HJ, Wang, M, Ouyang, H, Chai, ZF, Feng, WY, Zhao, YL. Microglial activation, recruitment and phagocytosis as linked phenomena in ferric oxide nanoparticle exposure. Toxicol Lett 2011, 205:26–37.
70 Lalancette‐Hebert, M, Moquin, A, Choi, AO, Kriz, J, Maysinger, D. Lipopolysaccharide‐QD micelles induce marked induction of TLR2 and lipid droplet accumulation in olfactory bulb microglia. Mol Pharm 2010, 7:1183–1194.
71 Hutter, E, Boridy, S, Labrecque, S, Lalancette‐Hebert, M, Kriz, J, Winnik, FM, Maysinger, D. Microglial response to gold nanoparticles. ACS Nano 2010, 4:2595–2606.
72 Liu, Y, Guan, W, Ren, G, Yang, Z. The possible mechanism of silver nanoparticle impact on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial cognition in rats. Toxicol Lett 2012, 209:227–231.
73 Garcia, GJM, Kimbell, JS. Deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in the rat nasal passages: dose to the olfactory region. Inhal Toxicol 2009, 21:1165–1175.
74 Oberdörster, G, Oberdörster, E, Oberdörster, J. Nanotoxicology: an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles. Environ Health Perspect 2005, 113:823–839.
75 Czerniawska, A. Experimental investigations on the penetration of 198
Au from nasal mucous membrane into cerebrospinal fluid. Acta Otolaryngologica 1970, 70:58–61.
76 Hadjipanayis, CG, Machaidze, R, Kaluzova, M, Wang, L, Schuette, AJ, Chen, H, Wu, X, Mao, H. EGFRvIII antibody‐conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging‐guided convection‐enhanced delivery and targeted therapy of glioblastoma. Cancer Res 2010, 70:6303–6312.
77 Corem‐Salkmon, E, Ram, Z, Daniels, D, Perlstein, B, Last, D, Salomon, S, Tamar, G, Shneor, R, Guez, D, Margel, S, et al. Convection‐enhanced delivery of methotrexate‐loaded maghemite nanoparticles. Int J Nanomed 2011, 6:1595–1602.
78 Daneshvar, H, Nelms, J, Muhammad, O, Jackson, H, Tkach, J, Davros, W, Peterson, T, Vogelbaum, MA, Bruchez, MP, Toms, SA. Imaging characteristics of zinc sulfide shell, cadmium telluride core quantum dots. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2008, 3:21–29.
79 Conner, SD, Schmid, SL. Regulated portals of entry into the cell. Nature 2003, 422:37–44.
80 Xu, J, Ling, EA. Studies of the ultrastructure and permeability of the blood‐brain barrier in the developing corpus callosum in postnatal rat brain using electron dense tracers. J Anat 1994, 184 (Pt 2):227–237.
81 Yokel, RA. Blood‐brain barrier flux of aluminum, manganese, iron and other metals suspected to contribute to metal‐induced neurodegeneration. J Alzheimer`s Dis 2006, 10:223–253.
82 Kato, S, Itoh, K, Yaoi, T, Tozawa, T, Yoshikawa, Y, Yasui, H, Kanamura, N, Hoshino, A, Manabe, N, Yamamoto, K, et al. Organ distribution of quantum dots after intraperitoneal administration, with special reference to area‐specific distribution in the brain. Nanotechnology 2010. doi:21:335103/1‐335103/7.
83 Chithrani, BD, Chan, WC. Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and removal of protein‐coated gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. Nano Lett 2007, 7:1542–1550.
84 AshaRani, PV, Hande, MP, Valiyaveettil, S. Anti‐proliferative activity of silver nanoparticles. BMC Cell Biol 2009, 10:65.
85 dos Santos, T, Varela, J, Lynch, I, Salvati, A, Dawson, KA. Quantitative assessment of the comparative nanoparticle‐uptake efficiency of a range of cell lines. Small 2011, 7:3341–3349.
86 Shi, X, von dem Bussche, A, Hurt, RH, Kane, AB, Gao, H. Cell entry of one‐dimensional nanomaterials occurs by tip recognition and rotation. Nat Nanotechnol 2011, 6:714–719.
87 De Jong, WH, Hagens, WI, Krystek, P, Burger, MC, Sips, AJ, Geertsma, RE. Particle size‐dependent organ distribution of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration. Biomaterials 2008, 29:1912–1919.
88 Sonavane, G, Tomoda, K, Makino, K. Biodistribution of colloidal gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration: effect of particle size. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2008, 66:274–280.
89 Terentyuk, GS, Maslyakova, GN, Suleymanova, LV, Khlebtsov, BN, Kogan, BY, Akchurin, GG, Shantrocha, AV, Maksimova, IL, Khlebtsov, NG, Tuchin, VV. Circulation and distribution of gold nanoparticles and induced alterations of tissue morphology at intravenous particle delivery. J Biophotonics 2009, 2:292–302.
90 Balogh, L, Nigavekar, SS, Nair, BM, Lesniak, W, Zhang, C, Sung, LY, Kariapper, MS, El‐Jawahri, A, Llanes, M, Bolton, B, et al. Significant effect of size on the in vivo biodistribution of gold composite nanodevices in mouse tumor models. Nanomedicine 2007, 3:281–296.
91 Trickler, WJ, Lantz, SM, Murdock, RC, Schrand, AM, Robinson, BL, Newport, GD, Schlager, JJ, Oldenburg, SJ, Paule, MG, Slikker, W Jr. et al. Brain microvessel endothelial cells responses to gold nanoparticles: In vitro
pro‐inflammatory mediators and permeability. Nanotoxicology 2011, 5:479–492.
92 Etame, AB, Smith, CA, Chan, WCW, Rutka, JT. Design and potential application of PEGylated gold nanoparticles with size‐dependent permeation through brain microvasculature. Nanomedicine 2011, 7:992–1000.
93 Kim, JH, Kim, JH, Kim, KW, Kim, MH, Yu, YS. Intravenously administered gold nanoparticles pass through the blood‐retinal barrier depending on the particle size, and induce no retinal toxicity. Nanotechnology 2009, 20:505101.
94 Jo, DH, Lee, TG, Kim, JH. Nanotechnology and nanotoxicology in retinopathy. Int J Mol Sci 2011, 12:8288–8301.
95 Chen, Y‐S, Hung, Y‐C, Lin, L‐W, Liau, I, Hong, M‐Y, Huang, GS. Size‐dependent impairment of cognition in mice caused by the injection of gold nanoparticles. Nanotechnology 2010. doi:21:485102/1‐485102/9.
96 Schleh, C, Semmler‐Behnke, M, Lipka, J, Wenk, A, Hirn, S, Schaeffler, M, Schmid, G, Simon, U, Kreyling, WG. Size and surface charge of gold nanoparticles determine absorption across intestinal barriers and accumulation in secondary target organs after oral administration. Nanotoxicology 2012, 6:36–46.
97 Hirn, S, Semmler‐Behnke, M, Schleh, C, Wenk, A, Lipka, J, Schaffler, M, Takenaka, S, Moller, W, Schmid, G, Simon, U, et al. Particle size‐dependent and surface charge‐dependent biodistribution of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2011, 77:407–416.
98 Nel, AE, Madler, L, Velegol, D, Xia, T, Hoek, EM, Somasundaran, P, Klaessig, F, Castranova, V, Thompson, M. Understanding biophysicochemical interactions at the nano‐bio interface. Nat Mater 2009, 8:543–557.
99 Auffan, M, Rose, J, Bottero, J‐Y, Lowry, GV, Jolivet, J‐P, Wiesner, MR. Towards a definition of inorganic nanoparticles from an environmental, health and safety perspective. Nat Nanotechnol 2009, 4:634–641.
100 Lacerda, SH, Park, JJ, Meuse, C, Pristinski, D, Becker, ML, Karim, A, Douglas, JF. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with common human blood proteins. ACS Nano 2010, 4:365–379.
101 Fenart, L, Casanova, A, Dehouck, B, Duhem, C, Slupek, S, Cecchelli, R, Betbeder, D. Evaluation of effect of charge and lipid coating on ability of 60‐nm nanoparticles to cross an in vitro
model of the blood‐brain barrier. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999, 291:1017–1022.
102 Jallouli, Y, Paillard, A, Chang, J, Sevin, E, Betbeder, D. Influence of surface charge and inner composition of porous nanoparticles to cross blood‐brain barrier in vitro. Int J Pharm 2007, 344:103–109.
103 Lockman, PR, Koziara, JM, Mumper, RJ, Allen, DD. Nanoparticle surface charges alter blood‐brain barrier integrity and permeability. J Drug Target 2004, 12:635–641.
104 Reddy, LH, Sharma, RK, Chuttani, K, Mishra, AK, Murthy, RR. Etoposide‐incorporated tripalmitin nanoparticles with different surface charge: Formulation, characterization, radiolabeling, and biodistribution studies. AAPS J 2004, 6:55–64.
105 Guerrero, S, Araya, E, Fiedler, JL, Arias, JI, Adura, C, Albericio, F, Giralt, E, Arias, JL, Fernandez, MS, Kogan, MJ. Improving the brain delivery of gold nanoparticles by conjugation with an amphipathic peptide. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2010, 5:897–913.
106 Borm, PJA, Robbins, D, Haubold, S, Kuhlbusch, T, Fissan, H, Donaldson, KS, Roel Stone, V, Kreyling, W, Lademann, J, et al. The potential risks of nanomaterials: a review carried out for ECETOC. Part Fibre Toxicol 2006, 3:35.
107 Walczyk, D, Bombelli, FB, Monopoli, MP, Lynch, I, Dawson, KA. What the cell “sees” in bionanoscience. J Am Chem Soc 2010, 132:5761–5768.
108 Monopoli, MP, Walczyk, D, Campbell, A, Elia, G, Lynch, I, Bombelli, FB, Dawson, KA. Physical‐chemical aspects of protein corona: relevance to in vitro
and in vivo
biological impacts of nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 2011, 133:2525–2534.
109 Dutta, D, Sundaram, SK, Teeguarden, JG, Riley, BJ, Fifield, LS, Jacobs, JM, Addleman, SR, Kaysen, GA, Moudgil, BM, Weber, TJ. Adsorbed proteins influence the biological activity and molecular targeting of nanomaterials. Toxicol Sci 2007, 100:303–315.
110 Horie, M, Nishio, K, Fujita, K, Endoh, S, Miyauchi, A, Saito, Y, Iwahashi, H, Yamamoto, K, Murayama, H, Nakano, H, et al. Protein adsorption of ultrafine metal oxide and its Influence on cytotoxicity toward cultured cells. Chem Res Toxicol 2009, 22:543–553.
111 Kreuter, J. Influence of the surface properties on nanoparticle‐mediated transport of drugs to the brain. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2004, 4:484–488.
112 Brown, DM, Wilson, MR, MacNee, W, Stone, V, Donaldson, K. Size‐dependent proinflammatory effects of ultrafine polystyrene particles: a role for surface area and oxidative stress in the enhanced activity of ultrafines. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2001, 175:191–199.
113 Hagens, WI, Oomen, AG, de Jong, WH, Cassee, FR, Sips, AJ. What do we (need to) know about the kinetic properties of nanoparticles in the body? Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2007, 49:217–229.
114 Foster, KA, Yazdanian, M, Audus, KL. Microparticulate uptake mechanisms of in‐vitro cell culture models of the respiratory epithelium. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001, 53:57–66.
115 Deng, ZJ, Mortimer, G, Schiller, T, Musumeci, A, Martin, D, Minchin, RF. Differential plasma protein binding to metal oxide nanoparticles. Nanotechnology 2009. doi:20:455101/1‐455101/9.
116 Lovric, J, Bazzi, HS, Cuie, Y, Fortin, GR, Winnik, FM, Maysinger, D. Differences in subcellular distribution and toxicity of green and red emitting CdTe quantum dots. J Mol Med 2005, 83:377–385.
117 Maysinger, D, Behrendt, M, Lalancette‐Hebert, M, Kriz, J. Real‐time imaging of astrocyte response to quantum dots: in vivo screening model system for biocompatibility of nanoparticles. Nano Lett 2007, 7:2513–2520.
118 Long, TC, Saleh, N, Tilton, RD, Lowry, GV, Veronesi, B. Titanium dioxide (P25) produces reactive oxygen species in immortalized brain microglia (BV2): implications for nanoparticle neurotoxicity. Environ Sci Technol 2006, 40:4346–4352.
119 Haase, A, Rott, S, Mantion, A, Graf, P, Plendl, J, Thunemann, AF, Meier, WP, Taubert, A, Luch, A, Reiser, G. Effects of silver nanoparticles on primary mixed neural cell cultures: uptake, oxidative stress and acute calcium responses. Toxicol Sci 2012, 126:457–468.
120 Sharma, HS, Sharma, A. Nanoparticles aggravate heat stress induced cognitive deficits, blood‐brain barrier disruption, edema formation and brain pathology. Prog Brain Res 2007, 162:245–273.
121 Sharma, HS, Ali, SF, Hussain, SM, Schlager, JJ, Sharma, A. Influence of engineered nanoparticles from metals on the blood‐brain barrier permeability, cerebral blood flow, brain edema and neurotoxicity. An experimental study in the rat and mice using biochemical and morphological approaches. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2009, 9:5055–5072.
122 Sharma, HS, Ali, SF, Tian, ZR, Hussain, SM, Schlager, JJ, Sjoquist, PO, Sharma, A, Muresanu, DF. Chronic treatment with nanoparticles exacerbate hyperthermia induced blood‐brain barrier breakdown, cognitive dysfunction and brain pathology in the rat. Neuroprotective effects of nanowired‐antioxidant compound H‐290/51. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2009, 9:5073–5090.
123 Mejias, R, Perez‐Yague, S, Roca, AG, Perez, N, Villanueva, A, Canete, M, Manes, S, Ruiz‐Cabello, J, Benito, M, Labarta, A, et al. Liver and brain imaging through dimercaptosuccinic acid‐coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2010, 5:397–408.
124 Kim, JS, Yoon, TJ, Yu, KN, Kim, BG, Park, SJ, Kim, HW, Lee, KH, Park, SB, Lee, JK, Cho, MH. Toxicity and tissue distribution of magnetic nanoparticles in mice. Toxicol Sci 2006, 89:338–347.
125 Yokel, RA, Florence, RL, Unrine, JM, Tseng, MT, Graham, UM, Wu, P, Grulke, EA, Sultana, R, Hardas, SS, Butterfield, DA. Biodistribution and oxidative stress effects of a systemically‐introduced commercial ceria engineered nanomaterial. Nanotoxicology 2009, 3:234–248.
126 Hardas, SS, Butterfield, DA, Sultana, R, Tseng, MT, Dan, M, Florence, RL, Unrine, JM, Graham, UM, Wu, P, Grulke, EA, et al. Brain distribution and toxicological evaluation of a systemically delivered engineered nanoscale ceria. Toxicol Sci 2010, 116:562–576.
127 Chen, L, Yokel, RA, Hennig, B, Toborek, M. Manufactured aluminum oxide nanoparticles decrease expression of tight junction proteins in brain vasculature. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2008, 3:286–295.
128 Brun, E, Carriere, M, Mabondzo, A. In vitro
evidence of dysregulation of blood‐brain barrier function after acute and repeated/long‐term exposure to TiO2
nanoparticles. Biomaterials 2012, 33:886–896.
129 Trickler, WJ, Lantz, SM, Murdock, RC, Schrand, AM, Robinson, BL, Newport, GD, Schlager, JJ, Oldenburg, SJ, Paule, MG, Slikker, W Jr. et al. Silver nanoparticle induced blood‐brain barrier inflammation and increased permeability in primary rat brain microvessel endothelial cells. Toxicol Sci 2010, 118:160–170.
130 Trickler, WJ, Lantz, SM, Schrand, AM, Robinson, BL, Newport, GD, Schlager, JJ, Paule, MG, Slikker, W, Biris, AS, Hussain, SM, et al. Effects of copper nanoparticles on rat cerebral microvessel endothelial cells. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2012, 7:835–846.
131 Wang, J, Zhou, G, Chen, C, Yu, H, Wang, T, Ma, Y, Jia, G, Gao, Y, Li, B, Sun, J, et al. Acute toxicity and biodistribution of different sized titanium dioxide particles in mice after oral administration. Toxicol Lett 2007, 168:176–185.
132 Ma, L, Liu, J, Li, N, Wang, J, Duan, Y, Yan, J, Liu, H, Wang, H, Hong, F. Oxidative stress in the brain of mice caused by translocated nanoparticulate TiO2
delivered to the abdominal cavity. Biomaterials 2010, 31:99–105.
133 Hu, R, Gong, X, Duan, Y, Li, N, Che, Y, Cui, Y, Zhou, M, Liu, C, Wang, H, Hong, F. Neurotoxicological effects and the impairment of spatial recognition memory in mice caused by exposure to TiO2
nanoparticles. Biomaterials 2010, 31:8043–8050.
134 Shin, JA, Lee, EJ, Seo, SM, Kim, HS, Kang, JL, Park, EM. Nanosized titanium dioxide enhanced inflammatory responses in the septic brain of mouse. Neuroscience 2010, 165:445–454.
135 Lee, H‐Y, Choi, Y‐J, Jung, E‐J, Yin, H‐Q, Kwon, J‐T, Kim, J‐E, Im, H‐T, Cho, M‐H, Kim, J‐H, Kim, H‐Y, et al. Genomics‐based screening of differentially expressed genes in the brains of mice exposed to silver nanoparticles via inhalation. J Nanopart Res 2010, 12:1567–1578.
136 Campbell, A, Oldham, M, Becaria, A, Bondy, SC, Meacher, D, Sioutas, C, Misra, C, Mendez, LB, Kleinman, M. Particulate matter in polluted air may increase biomarkers of inflammation in mouse brain. Neurotoxicology 2005, 26:133–140.
137 Utell, MJ, Frampton, MW, Zareba, W, Devlin, RB, Cascio, WE. Cardiovascular effects associated with air pollution: potential mechanisms and methods of testing. Inhal Toxicol 2002, 14:1231–1247.
138 Bhabra, G, Sood, A, Fisher, B, Cartwright, L, Saunders, M, Evans, WH, Surprenant, A, Lopez‐Castejon, G, Mann, S, Davis, SA, et al. Nanoparticles can cause DNA damage across a cellular barrier. Nat Nanotechnol 2009, 4:876–883.
139 Xu, R, Ma, J, Sun, X, Chen, Z, Jiang, X, Guo, Z, Huang, L, Li, Y, Wang, M, Wang, C, et al. Ag nanoparticles sensitize IR‐induced killing of cancer cells. Cell Res 2009, 19:1031–1034.
140 Pompa, PP, Vecchio, G, Galeone, A, Brunetti, V, Maiorano, G, Sabella, S, Cingolani, R. Physical assessment of toxicology at nanoscale: nano dose‐metrics and toxicity factor. Nanoscale 2011, 3:2889–2897.
141 Vecchio, G, Galeone, A, Brunetti, V, Maiorano, G, Sabella, S, Cingolani, R, Pompa, PP. Concentration‐dependent, size‐independent toxicity of citrate capped AuNPs in Drosophila melanogaster
. PLoS One 2012, 7:e29980.
142 Wang, H‐J, Yang, L, Yang, H‐Y, Wang, K, Yao, W‐G, Jiang, K, Huang, X‐L, Zheng, Z. Antineoplastic activities of protein‐conjugated silver sulfide nano‐crystals with different shapes. J Inorg Biochem 2010, 104:87–91.
143 Tarantola, M, Pietuch, A, Schneider, D, Rother, J, Sunnick, E, Rosman, C, Pierrat, S, Sonnichsen, C, Wegener, J, Janshoff, A. Toxicity of gold‐nanoparticles: synergistic effects of shape and surface functionalization on micromotility of epithelial cells. Nanotoxicology 2011, 5:254–268.
144 Mahto, SK, Yoon, TH, Rhee, SW. Cytotoxic effects of surface‐modified quantum dots on neuron‐like PC12 cells cultured inside microfluidic devices. BioChip J 2010, 4:82–88.
145 Soenen, SJH, Himmelreich, U, Nuytten, N, Pisanic, IITR, Ferrari, A, De, CM. Intracellular nanoparticle coating stability determines nanoparticle diagnostics efficacy and cell functionality. Small 2010, 6:2136–2145.
146 Soenen, SJH, Himmelreich, U, Nuytten, N, De, CM. Cytotoxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles and implications for safety in cell labeling. Biomaterials 2010, 32:195–205.
147 Rivet, CJ, Yuan, Y, Borca‐Tasciuc, D‐A, Gilbert, RJ, Altering, iron. oxide nanoparticle surface properties induce cortical neuron cytotoxicity. Chem Res Toxicol 2012, 25:153–161.
148 Bolis, V, Busco, C, Ciarletta, M, Distasi, C, Erriquez, J, Fenoglio, I, Livraghi, S, Morel, S. Hydrophilic/hydrophobic features of TiO2
nanoparticles as a function of crystal phase, surface area and coating, in relation to their potential toxicity in peripheral nervous system. J Colloid Interface Sci 2012, 369:28–39.
149 Phenrat, T, Long, TC, Lowry, GV, Veronesi, B. Partial oxidation (“aging”) and surface modification decrease the toxicity of nanosized zerovalent iron. Environ Sci Technol 2009, 43:195–200.
150 Cui, B, Wu, C, Chen, L, Ramirez, A, Bearer, EL, Li, W‐P, Mobley, WC, Chu, S. One at a time, live tracking of NGF axonal transport using quantum dots. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007, 104:13666–13671.
151 Jain, MP, Choi, AO, Neibert, KD, Maysinger, D. Probing and preventing quantum dot‐induced cytotoxicity with multimodal alpha‐lipoic acid in multiple dimensions of the peripheral nervous system. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2009, 4:277–290.
152 Jaiswal, AR, Lu, S, Pfau, J, Wong, YYW, Bhushan, A, Leung, SW, Daniels, CK, Lai, JCK. %22Effects of silicon dioxide nanoparticles on peripheral nervous system neural cell models%22. In: Laudon, M, Romanowicz, B, eds. Nanotech Conference %26 Expo 2011: An Interdisciplinary Integrative Forum on Nanotechnology, Biotechnology and Microtechnology. Boston, MA: CRC Press
; 2011, 541–544.
153 Oszlanczi, G, Papp, A, Szaboo, A, Nagymajtenyi, L, Sapi, A, Konya, Z, Paulik, E, Vezer, T. Nervous system effects in rats on subacute exposure by lead‐containing nanoparticles via the airways. Inhal Toxicol 2011, 23:173–181.
154 Lu, S, Jaiswal, AR, Wong, YYW, Bhushan, A, Leung, SW, Daniels, CK, Lai, JCK. %22Differential cytotoxic effects of titanium oxide nanoparticles on peripheral nervous system neural cells%22. Nanotech Conference %26 Expo 2011: An Interdisciplinary Integrative Forum on Nanotechnology, Biotechnology and Microtechnology. Boston, MA: CRC Press
155 Menon, PK, Muresanu, DF, Sharma, A, Moessler, H, Sharma, HS. Cerebrolysin, a mixture of neurotrophic factors induces marked neuroprotection in spinal cord injury following intoxication of engineered nanoparticles from metals. CNS Neurol Disord: Drug Targets 2012, 11:40–49.
156 Sharma, HS, Sharma, A. Nanowired drug delivery for neuroprotection in central nervous system injuries: modulation by environmental temperature, intoxication of nanoparticles, and comorbidity factors. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2012, 4:184–203.
157 Lin, Y‐L, Jen, J‐C, Hsu, S‐h, Chiu, I‐M. Sciatic nerve repair by microgrooved nerve conduits made of chitosan‐gold nanocomposites. Surg Neurol 2008, 70(suppl 1):9–18.
158 Das, M, Patil, S, Bhargava, N, Kang, JF, Riedel, LM, Seal, S, Hickman, JJ. Auto‐catalytic ceria nanoparticles offer neuroprotection to adult rat spinal cord neurons. Biomaterials 2007, 28:1918–1925.
159 Cannon, JR, Greenamyre, JT. The role of environmental exposures in neurodegeneration and neurodegenerative diseases. Toxicol Sci 2011, 124:225–250.
160 Geppert, M, Hohnholt, MC, Thiel, K, Nuernberger, S, Grunwald, I, Rezwan, K, Dringen, R. Uptake of dimercaptosuccinate‐coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured brain astrocytes. Nanotechnology 2011. doi:22:145101/1‐145101/10.
161 Yiu, HHP, Pickard, MR, Olariu, CI, Williams, SR, Chari, DM, Rosseinsky, MJ. Fe3
‐PEI‐RITC magnetic nanoparticles with imaging and gene transfer capability: development of a tool for neural cell transplantation therapies. Pharm Res 2012, 29:1328–1343.
162 Long, TC, Tajuba, J, Sama, P, Saleh, N, Swartz, C, Parker, J, Hester, S, Lowry, GV, Veronesi, B. Nanosize titanium dioxide stimulates reactive oxygen species in brain microglia and damages neurons in vitro. Environ Health Perspect 2007, 115:1631–1637.
163 Przybytkowski, E, Behrendt, M, Dubois, D, Maysinger, D. Nanoparticles can induce changes in the intracellular metabolism of lipids without compromising cellular viability. FEBS J 2009, 276:6204–6217.
164 Chan, WH, Shiao, NH, Lu, PZ. CdSe quantum dots induce apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells via mitochondrial‐dependent pathways and inhibition of survival signals. Toxicol Lett 2006, 167:191–200.
165 Choi, AO, Cho, SJ, Desbarats, J, Lovric, J, Maysinger, D. Quantum dot‐induced cell death involves Fas upregulation and lipid peroxidation in human neuroblastoma cells. J Nanobiotechnol 2007, 5:1.
166 Tang, M, Xing, T, Zeng, J, Wang, H, Li, C, Yin, S, Yan, D, Deng, H, Liu, J, Wang, M, et al. Unmodified CdSe quantum dots induce elevation of cytoplasmic calcium levels and impairment of functional properties of sodium channels in rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Environ Health Perspect 2008, 116:915–922.
167 Lai, JCK, Lai, MB, Jandhyam, S, Dukhande, VV, Bhushan, A, Daniels, CK, Leung, SW. Exposure to titanium dioxide and other metallic oxide nanoparticles induces cytotoxicity on human neural cells and fibroblasts. Int J Nanomed 2008, 3:533–545.
168 Pinkernelle, J, Calatayud, P, Goya, GF, Fansa, H, Keilhoff, G. Magnetic nanoparticles in primary neural cell cultures are mainly taken up by microglia. BMC Neurosci 2012, 13:32.
169 Zeng, G, Wang, G, Guan, F, Chang, K, Jiao, H, Gao, W, Xi, S, Yang, B. Human amniotic membrane‐derived mesenchymal stem cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: the effect on neuron‐like differentiation in vitro. Mol Cell Biochem 2011, 357:331–341.
170 Asharani, PV, Wu, YL, Gong, Z, Valiyaveettil, S. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish models. Nanotechnology 2008. doi:19:255102/1‐255102/8.
171 Jovanovic, B, Ji, T, Palic, D. Gene expression of zebrafish embryos exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles and hydroxylated fullerenes. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2011, 74:1518–1525.
172 Chen, J, Dong, X, Xin, Y, Zhao, M. Effects of titanium dioxide nano‐particles on growth and some histological parameters of zebrafish (Danio rerio
) after a long‐term exposure. Aquat Toxicol 2011, 101:493–499.
173 Palaniappan, PR, Pramod, KS. The effect of titanium dioxide on the biochemical constituents of the brain of Zebrafish (Danio rerio
): an FT‐IR study. Spectrochim Acta, Part A 2011, 79:206–212.
174 Truong, L, Tilton, S, Zaikov, T, Richman, E, Waters, KH, Hutchison, JE, Tanguay, R. Surface functionalities of gold nanoparticles impact embryonic gene expression responses. Nanotoxicology (Epub ahead of print; January 20, 2012). Available at: http://informahea lthcare.com/doi/pdf/10.3109/17435390.2011.648225. (Accessed December 6, 2012).
175 Chen, T‐H, Lin, C‐Y, Tseng, M‐C. Behavioral effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on larval zebrafish (Danio rerio
). Mar Pollut Bull 2011, 63:303–308.
176 Zhang, H, He, X, Zhang, Z, Zhang, P, Li, Y, Ma, Y, Kuang, Y, Zhao, Y, Chai, Z. Nano‐CeO2
exhibits adverse effects at environmental relevant concentrations. Environ Sci Technol 2011, 45:3725–3730.
177 Ma, H, Bertsch, PM, Glenn, TC, Kabengi, NJ, Williams, PL. Toxicity of manufactured zinc oxide nanoparticles in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
. EnvironToxicol Chem 2009, 28:1324–1330.
178 Choi, CH, Alabi, CA, Webster, P, Davis, ME. Mechanism of active targeting in solid tumors with transferrin‐containing gold nanoparticles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010, 107: 1235–1240.
179 Kim, YH, Jeon, J, Hong, SH, Rhim, WK, Lee, YS, Youn, H, Chung, JK, Lee, MC, Lee, DS, Kang, KW, et al. Tumor targeting and imaging using cyclic RGD‐PEGylated gold nanoparticle probes with directly conjugated iodine‐125. Small 2011, 7:2052–2060.
180 Cheng, Y, Meyers, JD, Agnes, RS, Doane, TL, Kenney, ME, Broome, A‐M, Burda, C, Basilion, JP. Addressing brain tumors with targeted gold nanoparticles: a new gold standard for hydrophobic drug delivery? Small 2011, 7:2301–2306.
181 Dhar, S, Reddy, EM, Prabhune, A, Pokharkar, V, Shiras, A, Prasad, BL. Cytotoxicity of sophorolipid‐gellan gum‐gold nanoparticle conjugates and their doxorubicin loaded derivatives towards human glioma and human glioma stem cell lines. Nanoscale 2011, 3:575–580.
182 Ip, S, MacLaughlin, CM, Gunari, N, Walker, GC. Phospholipid membrane encapsulation of nanoparticles for surface‐enhanced Raman scattering. Langmuir 2011, 27:7024–7033.
183 Lasagna‐Reeves, C, Gonzalez‐Romero, D, Barria, MA, Olmedo, I, Clos, A, Sadagopa Ramanujam, VM, Urayama, A, Vergara, L, Kogan, MJ, Soto, C. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of gold nanoparticles after repeated administration in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010, 393:649–655.
184 Cho, WS, Cho, M, Jeong, J, Choi, M, Cho, HY, Han, BS, Kim, SH, Kim, HO, Lim, YT, Chung, BH. Acute toxicity and pharmacokinetics of 13 nm‐sized PEG‐coated gold nanoparticles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009, 236:16–24.
185 dos Santos Silva, I, Malveiro, F, Jones, ME, Swerdlow, AJ. Mortality after radiological investigation with radioactive Thorotrast: a follow‐up study of up to fifty years in Portugal. Radiat Res 2003, 159:521–534.
186 Fabian, E, Landsiedel, R, Ma‐Hock, L, Wiench, K, Wohlleben, W, van Ravenzwaay, B. Tissue distribution and toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats. Arch Toxicol 2008, 82:151–157.
187 Ballou, B, Lagerholm, BC, Ernst, LA, Bruchez, MP, Waggoner, AS. Noninvasive imaging of quantum dots in mice. Bioconjug Chem 2004, 15:79–86.
188 Bonoiu, AC, Bergey, EJ, Ding, H, Hu, R, Kumar, R, Yong, KT, Prasad, PN, Mahajan, S, Picchione, KE, Bhattacharjee, A, et al. Gold nanorod–siRNA induces efficient in vivo
gene silencing in the rat hippocampus. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2011, 6:617–630.
189 Sabella, S, Galeone, A, Vecchio, G, Cingolani, R, Pompa, PP. AuNPs are toxic in vitro
and in vivo
: a review. J Nanosci Lett 2011, 1:145–165.
190 Khlebtsov, N, Dykman, L. Biodistribution and toxicity of engineered gold nanoparticles: a review of in vitro
and in vivo
studies. Chem Soc Rev 2011, 40:1647–1671.
191 Sperling, RA, Rivera, GP, Zhang, F, Zanella, M, Parak, WJ. Biological applications of gold nanoparticles. Chem Soc Rev 2008, 37:1896–1908.
192 Brown, CL, Whitehouse, MW, Tiekink, ER, Bushell, GR. Colloidal metallic gold is not bio‐inert. Inflammopharmacology 2008, 16:133–137.
193 Chen, Y‐S, Hung, Y‐C, Liau, I, Huang, GS. Assessment of the in vivo toxicity of gold nanoparticles. Nanoscale Res Lett 2009, 4:858–864.
194 Hayashi, A, Naseri, A, Pennesi, ME, Juan, E. Subretinal delivery of immunoglobulin G with gold nanoparticles in the rabbit eye. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2009, 53:249–256.
195 Rocha, A, Zhou, Y, Kundu, S, Gonzalez, JM, BradleighVinson, S, Liang, H. In vivo observation of gold nanoparticles in the central nervous system of Blaberus discoidalis. J Nanobiotechnology 2011, 9:9.
196 Park, E‐JC, Wan‐Seob Jeong, J, Yi, J‐h, Choi, K, Kim, Y, Park, K. Induction of inflammatory responses in mice treated with cerium oxide nanoparticles by intratracheal instillation. J Health Sci 2010, 56:387–396.