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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Dental applications of nanostructured bioactive glass and its composites

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Abstract To improve treatments of bone or dental trauma and diseases such as osteoporosis, cancer, and infections, scientists who perform basic research are collaborating with clinicians to design and test new biomaterials for the regeneration of lost or injured tissue. Developed some 40 years ago, bioactive glass (BG) has recently become one of the most promising biomaterials, a consequence of discoveries that its unusual properties elicit specific biological responses inside the body. Among these important properties are the capability of BG to form strong interfaces with both hard and soft tissues, and its release of ions upon dissolution. Recent developments in nanotechnology have introduced opportunities for materials sciences to advance dental and bone therapies. For example, the applications for BG expand as it becomes possible to finely control structures and physicochemical properties of materials at the molecular level. Here, we review how the properties of these materials have been enhanced by the advent of nanotechnology, and how these developments are producing promising results in hard‐tissue regeneration and development of innovative BG‐based drug delivery systems. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2013, 5:399–410. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1224 This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanotechnology in Tissue Repair and Replacement

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Photomicrographs of three‐dimensional (3D) pure bioactive glass (BG) (a and b) and BG composite (c and d) scaffolds created by different processing methods: solid freeform fabrication (a), polymer foam replication (b), electrospinning (c), and gelification/lyophilization (d). (a: Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 John Wiley and Sons; b: Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 Elsevier; c: Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 Springer; d: Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 Elsevier)

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A model of the 45S5 BG structure. Na and Ca ions are removed for better clarity. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 Elsevier)

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Different aspects of bioactive glass (BG) materials can be exploited to induce specific biological activities.

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Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) systems. TEM images (a and b) of calcined hexagonal MBG structures investigated along the [001] (a) and [100] (b) directions. Synchrotron radiation‐based microcomputed tomography images (c–f) of thigh muscle pouches of mice after implantation of Ca/Mg‐doped MBG scaffolds: bare scaffolds at different magnification after 4 weeks (c and d), and BMP‐2‐functionalized scaffolds after 2 and 4 weeks (e and f) are shown. (a and b: Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2004 John Wiley and Sons; c–f: Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 Elsevier)

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Special Topics in Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology

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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies
Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanotechnology in Tissue Repair and Replacement
Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants

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