Home
This Title All WIREs
WIREs RSS Feed
How to cite this WIREs title:
WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
Impact Factor: 6.14

Lanthanide‐doped hollow nanomaterials as theranostic agents

Full article on Wiley Online Library:   HTML PDF

Can't access this content? Tell your librarian.

The field of theranostics has sprung up to achieve personalized medicine. The theranostics fuses diagnostic and therapeutic functions, empowering early diagnosis, targeted drug delivery, and real‐time monitoring of treatment effect into one step. One particularly attractive class of nanomaterials for theranostic application is lanthanide‐doped hollow nanomaterials (LDHNs). Because of the existence of lanthanide ions, LDHNs show outstanding fluorescent and paramagnetic properties, enabling them to be used as multimodal bioimaging agents. Synchronously, the huge interior cavities of LDHNs are able to be applied as efficacious tools for storage and delivery of therapeutic agents. The LDHNs can be divided into two types based on difference of component: single‐phase lanthanide‐doped hollow nanomaterials and lanthanide‐doped hollow nanocomposites. We describe the synthesis of first kind of nanomaterials by use of hard template, soft template, template‐free, and self‐sacrificing template method. For lanthanide‐doped hollow nanocomposites, we divide the preparation strategies into three kinds (one‐step, two‐step, and multistep method) according to the synthetic procedures. Furthermore, we also illustrate the potential bioapplications of these LDHNs, including biodetection, imaging (fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging), drug/gene delivery, and other therapeutic applications. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2014, 6:80–101. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1251 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

This WIREs title offers downloadable PowerPoint presentations of figures for non-profit, educational use, provided the content is not modified and full credit is given to the author and publication.

Download a PowerPoint presentation of all images


(a) Schematic illustration of the carbon‐sphere templating process for fabricating rare earth oxide hollow spheres. TEM images of carbon spheres (b), uncalcined precursor (c), and Lu2O3:Eu3+ hollow spheres. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society) II: Typical TEM images of hollow‐structured La2O3 (a), Y2O3 (b), Gd2O3 (c) and NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ (d) using PS, silica, MF and AAO as templates, respectively. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 Royal Society of Chemistry; Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 John Wiley and Sons; Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society; Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2009 Springer)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
(a) Schematic illustration of radiosensitization by UCSNs‐CDDP. (b) In vitro CDDP release profile from UCSNs in deionized water. (c) In vitro evaluation of HeLa cells with chemo‐/radiotherapy. (d) Digital photos of mice bearing xenograft tumors before and after chemo‐/radiotherapy and images of hematoxylin and eosin stained tumor sections from mice treated with CDDP + radiation and FA‐UCSNs‐CDDP + radiation, respectively. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Representative single‐phase lanthanide‐doped hollow nanomaterials prepared by soft template method. I: (a) Schematic illustration for the formation process of SrMO4 hollow spheres. (b) UC emission spectra and CIE chromaticity diagram of SrMO4:16%Yb3+/x%Ho3+/ (1 – x)%Tm3+ (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1) (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 Royal Society of Chemistry) II: SEM (a) and TEM (b) images of BaF2 hollow cubes. (c) Emission spectra for Ln‐doped BaF2 (Ln = Nd, Er, Yb) hollow cubes. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2010 Royal Society of Chemistry) III: The formation mechanism (a), TEM image (b), small‐angle XRD pattern (c), HRTEM image (d), EDS (e), and N2 sorption isotherms (f) of the Gd2O3 nanotubes. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
LDHNs as anticancer drug carriers. I: (a) Schematic illustration of the synthesis of DOX@Gd2O2S:Tb3+@PSS/PAH and pH‐responsive release of DOX. (b) HRTEM image of a single DOX@Gd2O2S:Tb3+@PSS/PAH nanocapsule. (c) Cumulative release of doxorubicin from DOX@Gd2O2S:Tb3+@PSS/PAH at pH 5.0 and 7.4. (d) Absorption spectra of DOX (0.05 mg/mL at pH 5.0 and 7.4) and radioluminescence spectrum of Gd2O2S:Tb3+@PSS/PAH. (e) Radioluminescent spectra of DOX@Gd2O2S:Tb3+@PSS/PAH at pH 5.0 taken at three different times during drug release. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society) II: TEM image (a) and biocompatibility (b) of α‐NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ hollow nanospheres. (c) In vitro cytotoxicity of HeLa cells after incubation with α‐NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+, α‐NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+DOX, FA‐α‐NaYF4:Yb 3+,Er3+DOX, and free DOX. CLSM images of HeLa cells incubated with α‐NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+DOX (d) and FA‐α‐NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+DOX (e). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 Elsevier)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
(a) The r1 value of seven representative LDHNs as T1‐weighted CAs. (b) T1‐weighted images of male BALB/c mice administrated with Gd2O3/C nanoshells at the indicated temporal points. (c) The signal intensities of liver and kidney in T1‐weighted imaging at the indicated temporal points. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 John Wiley and Sons)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Fluorescence imaging of LDHNs with different excitation sources: UV light (I), X‐ray (II), and NIR laser (III). I: (a) Emission spectra of CePO4:Gd3+, CePO4:Tb3+ and CePO4:Tb3+,Gd3+. (b) Fluorescent microscopy image of HeLa cells after incubation with CePO4:Tb3+,Gd3+ hollow nanospheres. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 Royal Society of Chemistry) II: (a) Photograph of MCF‐7 cells with and without H‐SiO2@Gd2O2S:Eu3+ nanocapsules viewed under room light and X‐ray irradiation. (b) Fluorescence microscopy image of MCF‐7 cells with internalized nanocapsules. (c) Radioluminescent images of accumulation of nanocapsules in organs after 24 h. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society) III: In vivo upconversion luminescence imaging of Kunming mouse: Gd2O3:Yb3+,Er3+ hollow spheres injected into translucent skin of foot (a), below skin of back (b), and thigh muscles (c) show red luminescence. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Multistep method for synthesizing lanthanide‐doped hollow nanocomposites. (a) Schematic illustration for the formation process of Fe3O4@void@α‐NaLuF4:Yb3+,Er3+ spheres. TEM (b, d) and EDS maps (c, e) of the distribution of Fe, Si, and Lu elements in Fe3O4@SiO2@Lu2O3 (b, c) and Fe3O4@void@α‐NaLuF4:Yb3+,Er3+ spheres (d, e). (f) TEM images of Fe3O4@void@α‐NaLuF4:Yb3+,Er3+. (g) The visual and total luminescence photograph of Fe3O4@void@α‐NaLuF4:Yb3+,Er3+ aqueous solution without and with applied magnetic field. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 Elsevier) (h) Schematic illustration for the formation process β‐NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+,Gd3+@void@SiO2 tubes. TEM images of β‐NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+,Gd3+ (i), β‐NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+,Gd3+@SiO2 (j), and β‐NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+,Gd3+@void@SiO2 tubes (k). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 John Wiley and Sons)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Fabrication of hollow nanostructures by electron‐beam lithography. (a) HRTEM images of a single 20‐nm β‐NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocrystal with electron‐beam irradiation intervals of 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 seconds. (b) Illustration of solid‐to‐hollow transition of β‐NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocrystals under electron‐beam irradiation. (c) Different patterns produced by electron‐beam lithography. TEM images of α‐NaLuF4 NPs before (d) and after (e) electron‐beam irradiation. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2009 John Wiley and Sons; Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 John Wiley and Sons)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
α‐NaYF4 hollow nanospheres prepared by self‐sacrificing template method. TEM images of samples obtained with different reaction times: 1 (a), 1.5 (b), 2 (c), and 3 h (d). (e) Illustration of the α‐NaYF4 hollow nanospheres formation process. UC luminescence spectra of α‐NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ (g), α‐NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+, and samples as a function of the reaction time (h). (i) Photographs of the UC luminescence. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
(a) Schematic illustration of the formation process of the CaF2 hollow spheres. TEM images of the CaF2 hollow spheres with the diameter of 300 nm (b), 480 nm (c), 750 nm (d), and 930 nm (e), respectively. (f) PL excitation and emission spectra for CaF2:Ce3+,Tb3+ hollow spheres. (g) Integrated PL emission intensity and PL quantum efficiency of CaF2:Ce3+,Tb3+ hollow spheres as a function of particle size. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2010 John Wiley and Sons)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]

Related Articles

Fluorescence in Nanodiagnostics
Imaging: An Interdisciplinary View

Browse by Topic

Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging

Access to this WIREs title is by subscription only.

Recommend to Your
Librarian Now!

The latest WIREs articles in your inbox

Sign Up for Article Alerts