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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Recent development of antifouling polymers: structure, evaluation, and biomedical applications in nano/micro‐structures

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Antifouling polymers have been proven to be vital to many biomedical applications such as medical implants, drug delivery, and biosensing. This review covers the major development of antifouling polymers in the last 2 decades, including the material chemistry, structural factors important to antifouling properties, and how to challenge or evaluate the antifouling performances. We then discuss the applications of antifouling polymers in nano/micro‐biomedical applications in the form of nanoparticles, thin coatings for medical devices (e.g., artificial joint, catheter, wound dressing), and nano/microscale fibers. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2014, 6:599–614. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1278 This article is categorized under: Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants
Typical hydrophilic functional groups that provide fouling resistance.
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First row shows the dry and hydrated forms and SEM image of the water‐stable electrospun poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (pSBMA) fibrous membrane. Second row shows the antifouling properties of the membrane. From left to right are resistance to fibrinogen by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), bovine aortic endothelial cells after 72‐h incubation, S. epidermidis after 24‐h culture, and microbicidal activity using a zone‐of‐inhibition assay. Two insets are from the electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) controls under same experimental conditions. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 American Chemical Society)
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(Left) An X‐ray of a replaced hip joint in which the relationship between the femoral head and the polyethylene (PE) liner is indicated. Poly(2‐methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (pMPC) is bound to the PE liner by the covalent bond with a photoinduced graft polymerization technique. (Right top) Friction torque of the three PE liners against the femoral heads measured before the loading test. (Right bottom) Time course of corrected wear amount of crosslinked polyethylene (CLPE) liners with or without pMPC grafting during 20 million cycles of loading. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n = 3). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2004 Nature; Reprinted with permission from Ref Copyright 2014 Wiley)
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Hydrodynamic size of uncoated and various polymer‐coated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in (a) 10% human blood in PBS, and (b) 100% human blood serum, measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The GNPs were separated from serum and re‐suspended in buffer before detection. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2009 Elsevier)
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Potential biomedical applications of nano/micro‐structures of antifouling materials.
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Typical zwitterionic groups that provide fouling resistance.
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