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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Nanoparticle approaches against bacterial infections

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Despite the wide success of antibiotics, the treatment of bacterial infections still faces significant challenges, particularly the emergence of antibiotic resistance. As a result, nanoparticle drug delivery platforms including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, and various inorganic nanoparticles have been increasingly exploited to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. This review focuses on areas where nanoparticle approaches hold significant potential to advance the treatment of bacterial infections. These areas include targeted antibiotic delivery, environmentally responsive antibiotic delivery, combinatorial antibiotic delivery, nanoparticle‐enabled antibacterial vaccination, and nanoparticle‐based bacterial detection. In each area we highlight the innovative antimicrobial nanoparticle platforms and review their progress made against bacterial infections. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2014, 6:532–547. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1282 This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease
Schematic illustration of major nanoparticle‐based delivery platforms for treating bacterial infections: (a) liposome, (b) polymeric nanoparticle, (c) dendrimer, and (d) inorganic nanoparticle.
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Magneto‐DNA assay for the detection of bacterial 16S rRNA. Total RNA is extracted from the specimen, and the 16S rRNA is amplified by asymmetric RT‐PCR. Single‐strand DNA of the amplified product is then captured by beads conjugated with capture probes, followed by hybridizing with MNPs to form a magnetic sandwich complex. Samples are subsequently analyzed using a miniaturized micro‐NMR (µNMR) system. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 Nature Publishing Group)
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Schematic illustration of interbilayer‐crosslinked multilamellar vesicles (ICMVs) for vaccine delivery: (a) OVA‐loaded ICMVs with MPLA only on the external surface and (b) OVA‐loaded ICMVs with MPLA throughout the lipid multilayers. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 Nature Publishing Group)
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Schematic preparation of nanoparticle‐detained toxins, denoted ‘nanotoxoid’, consisting of substrate‐supported RBC membranes into which pore‐forming toxins can spontaneously incorporate. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 Nature Publishing Group)
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Schematic illustration of a phospholipid liposome stabilized by charged gold nanoparticles and its drug release in response to pH change or the presence of bacterial toxin.
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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease

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