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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Development and applications of radioactive nanoparticles for imaging of biological systems

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Radioactive nanoparticles possess the ability to carry high payloads of radionuclides for noninvasive imaging of regions of interest inside the body. In this way, they can be used for nuclear imaging of systems such as normal physiology and disease states. Various methods have been developed to label nanoparticles using both radiometals and radiohalogens, for single‐photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in laboratory animals. The use of imaging to develop radioactive nanoparticles with long circulation times and minimal reticuloendothelial uptakes led to the design of nanoparticle constructs for imaging animal models of chronic illnesses, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Further improvements in targeting were made by modifying these constructs with vectors having high affinity and specificity for diseased tissue. In addition, constructs containing more than one type of imaging material afforded nanoparticles with multimodal properties, such as those designed for nuclear, magnetic resonance, and/or optical detection. Given the close relationship between diagnosis and therapy, theranostic nanoparticles have also been developed both to deliver radiotherapy and monitor response by imaging. In this article, we review the use of radionuclides to label nanoparticles for development and applications involving noninvasive detection of normal and abnormal biological functions. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2014, 6:628–640. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1292 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
Schematic of Type I and Type II nanoparticle construction.
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Representative Čerenkov luminescent images of a mouse bearing an EMT‐6 tumor after administration of PEGylated 198Au‐doped gold nanocages. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society)
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Coronal positron emission tomography (PET) images of nude mice bearing U87MG tumors after administration of 64Cu‐DOTA‐iron oxide nanoparticles, 64Cu‐DOTA‐iron oxide‐RGD nanoparticles blocked with excess nonradioactive arginine‐glycine‐aspartic acid (RGD), or 64Cu‐DOTA‐iron oxide‐RGD nanoparticles (a). Time‐activity curves of U87MG tumors after administration of 64Cu‐DOTA‐iron oxide nanoparticles, 64Cu‐DOTA‐iron oxide‐RGD nanoparticles, or 64Cu‐DOTA‐iron oxide‐RGD nanoparticles blocked with excess nonradioactive RGD (b). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2008 Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging)
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Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images of angiogenesis induced by hindlimb ischemia in mice after administration of nontargeted dendritic nanoparticles (left) and arginine‐glycine‐aspartic acid (RGD)‐targeted nanoparticles (right), showing specific uptake by the RGD construct, but not the nontargeted construct. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2009 National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America)
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Fused positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images of the aortic root (a), arch (b), and carotid artery (c) of aged apoE−/− mice and wild‐type mice (d–f), hematoxylin and eosin staining of respective vascular regions (g–j), and three‐dimensional maximum intensity PET/CT reconstructions (k and l). The latter show focal PET signals (k, red) in the aorta (k, blue) of an apoE−/− mouse, but not in a wild‐type mouse (l). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health)
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Coronal microPET images of 64Cu‐SCK (top) and 64Cu‐PEG‐SCK (bottom) in normal Balb/c mice. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2005 American Chemical Society)
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Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging

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