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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Versatile carboxymethyl chitin and chitosan nanomaterials: a review

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Biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low cost of chitin and chitosan have drawn immense attention in many fields including medicine, bioinspired material science, pharmaceuticals, and agriculture. Their handling and processing are difficult owing to its insolubility in neutral aqueous solution or organic solvents. One of the methods used to improve the solubility characteristics of chitin and chitosan is chemical modification. Introducing a carboxymethyl group is the most advantageous method of increasing the solubility of chitosan at neutral and alkaline pH. Carboxymethyl chitin (CMC) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) are water soluble derivatives formed by introducing CH2COOH function into the polymer which endows it with better biological properties. The functional group makes CMC/CMCS nanoparticles (NPs) efficient vehicles for the delivery of DNA, proteins, and drugs. This review provides an overview of the characteristics of CMC/CMCS NPs as well as fulfills the task of describing and discussing its important roles primarily in cancer nanomedicine detailing the targeted drug delivery aspect. The application of these NPs in imaging, agriculture, and textiles has also been highlighted. The review also elaborates the advantages of using the CMC and CMCS NPs for drug and gene delivery. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2014, 6:574–598. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1301 This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanotechnology in Tissue Repair and Replacement
Treatment for glaucoma using drug loaded carboxymethyl chitosan ocular suspension.
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ZnO‐CMCS bionanocomposite as antibacterial UV protective cotton fabric.
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Bacterial growth inhibition halos against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli using electrospun nanofibres.
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SEM of PVA/CMCS containing AgNO3 and TEM micrographs of Ag NPs/PVA/CMCS and size distribution of Ag NPs prepared from PVA/CMCS aqueous solution containing different content of AgNO3.
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Diagrammatic representation of the interaction of (a) Aceclofenac and (b) Diclofenac with O‐CMCS
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Fluorescence image of tetracycline loaded carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles binding on Staphylococcus aureus.
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Fluorescence microscopic analyses of cellular uptake of Cet‐PTXL‐O‐CMCS.
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Diagrammatic representation of targeted nanoparticle delivery showing enhanced nanoparticle uptake by EGFR positive cells.
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Dual image of O‐CMCS used in targeted cancer therapy by folate conjugation and hyperthermia by Fe3O4 loading.
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SEM image of CMC and 5‐Fu loaded CMC nanoparticles.
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Schematic representation of the synthetic route of paclitaxel loaded carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticle.
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Fluorescent images of the in vitro uptake of drug loaded nanoparticles in the normal and the pancreatic cancer cells. Cellular uptake images of L929 (a) and MiaPaCa‐2 (b) cells without treatment (upper panel) and treatment with 3.7 mM rhodamine‐123 tagged O‐CMC‐metforminNPs (lower panel), showing DAPI (a′, a″), rhodamine (b′, b″) and merged (c′, c″) images in both panel at 60× magnification. O‐CMC‐metformin NPs treated cells at 100× magnification (d′).
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Applications of carboxymethyl chitin (CMC) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) nanoparticles.
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Imaging of cells using O‐carboxymethyl chitosan wrapped NaYF4: Yb3+/Tm3+/Er3+ red UCNPs.
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Structure of (a) carboxymethyl chitin, (b) N‐carboxymethyl chitosan, (c) O‐carboxymethyl chitosan, and (d) N,O‐carboxymethyl chitosan.
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SEM image of hMSCs attached on the surface of CMC/PVA scaffolds after (a) 12 (b) 24 and (c) 48 h of incubation.
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(A) Photoluminescence of (a) CMCS‐ZnS:Mn (b) FA‐CMCS‐ZnS:Mn (c) 5‐Fu encapsulated FA‐CMCS‐ZnS:Mn. (B) Optical photography of 5‐Fu encapsulated FA‐CMCS‐ZnS:Mn NPs.
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Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanotechnology in Tissue Repair and Replacement
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease

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