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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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An overview of optical coherence tomography for ovarian tissue imaging and characterization

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Ovarian cancer has the lowest survival rate among all the gynecologic cancers because it is predominantly diagnosed at late stages due to the lack of reliable symptoms and efficacious screening techniques. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technique that provides high‐resolution images of biological tissue in real time, and demonstrates great potential for imaging of ovarian tissue. In this article, we review OCT studies for visualization and diagnosis of human ovaries as well as quantitative extraction of ovarian tissue optical properties for classifying normal and malignant ovaries. OCT combined with other imaging modalities to further improve ovarian tissue diagnosis is also reviewed. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2015, 7:1–16. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1306

(a–d) One set of images of ovarian tissue from a patient with endometriosis. (e–h) One set of images of malignant ovarian tissue from a 61‐year‐old patient. (a, e) Optical coherence tomography (OCT) image; (b, f) ultrasound (US) image; (c, g) superimposed photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and US image; (d, h) corresponding histology. Pink arrow, collagen bundle; red stealth arrow, blood vessel; yellow diamond arrow, malignant tissue; scale bar, 1 mm. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 OSA)
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Integrated optical coherence tomography–ultrasound–photoacoustic imaging (OCT–US–PAI) three‐modality endoscopic probe. (a) Sketch of the three‐modality probe; (b) photographs of probe and components (transducer, OCT fiber and light illumination fiber); (c) left view of the probe configuration; (d) side view of the probe configuration. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 OSA)
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(a–c) One set of images obtained from one ovary of normal patient. (d–f) One set of images obtained from one ovary of patient with ovarian cancers. (a, d) Positron distribution map; (b, e) optical coherence tomography (OCT) image; (c, f) corresponding H&E histology; scale bar, 0.5 mm. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 OSA)
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Demonstration of positive correlation between (a) scattering coefficient, (b) phase retardation, (c) phase retardation rate, and collagen content; the blue dashed lines show 95% confidence intervals. (Reprinted with permission from Ref and Ref . Copyright 2012 and 2013 OSA)
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Intensity optical coherence tomography (OCT) (a, c) and phase retardation images (b, d) from normal (a, b) and malignant (c, d) ovarian tissue. Scale bar, 0.5 mm. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 OSA)
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Top: plots of angle‐resolved scattering coefficients on 18 different optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging planes from (a) normal ovarian tissue and (b) malignant ovarian tissue. Bottom: OCT images and picrosirius red histology images of normal ovarian tissue (c, d) and malignant ovarian tissue (e, f). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 SPIE)
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One set of examples from normal (a–c) and malignant (d–f) ovarian tissues. (a, d): Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images; (b, e): H&E histology; (c, f): picrosirius red stains. Inset: fitting example; blue arrows: collagen bundles. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 SPIE)
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(a) Optical coherence tomography (OCT) image of ovary from an abnormal patient and (b) corresponding H&E histology; red circle: lymphocytes. (a) OCT image of ovary from patient with malignant ovarian cancers, and (b) corresponding H&E histology; arrow: tumor nodule. Scale bar, 0.5 mm. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 OSA)
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Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and corresponding histology. The OCT images are 6 mm wide by 1.4 mm deep, the histological images are 2 mm wide by 1.5 mm deep. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2004 Adenine Press)
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Optical coherence tomography (OCT) system configuration.
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