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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Oxidative stress by inorganic nanoparticles

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Metallic and metallic oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been increasingly used for various bio‐applications owing to their unique physiochemical properties in terms of conductivity, optical sensitivity, and reactivity. With the extensive usage of NPs, increased human exposure may cause oxidative stress and lead to undesirable health consequences. To date, various endogenous and exogenous sources of oxidants contributing to oxidative stress have been widely reported. Oxidative stress is generally defined as an imbalance between the production of oxidants and the activity of antioxidants, but it is often misrepresented as a single type of cellular stress. At the biological level, NPs can initiate oxidative stress directly or indirectly through various mechanisms, leading to profound effects ranging from the molecular to the disease level. Such effects of oxidative stress have been implicated owing to their small size and high biopersistence. On the other hand, cellular antioxidants help to counteract oxidative stress and protect the cells from further damage. While oxidative stress is commonly known to exert negative biological effects, measured and intentional use of NPs to induce oxidative stress may provide desirable effects to either stimulate cell growth or promote cell death. Hence, NP‐induced oxidative stress can be viewed from a wide paradigm. Because oxidative stress is comprised of a wide array of factors, it is also important to use appropriate assays and methods to detect different pro‐oxidant and antioxidant species at molecular and disease levels. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:414–438. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1374 This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials
Paradigm of the intrinsic abilities of metallic and metallic oxide nanoparticles (NPs). Examples illustrated four distinct mechanisms of how NPs contribute to the perturbation of cellular oxidative state.
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Oxidative stress‐mediated toxicity of nanoparticles elicit a number of biological responses that can be utilized for antibacterial and anticancer therapeutics. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2008 Elsevier)
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Schematic diagram of three different ways that nanoparticle (NP)‐induced oxidative stress can be applied in nanomedicine. Responses range from proliferative effects to cellular death.
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Balance of pro‐oxidants and antioxidants that determine the oxidative state of the cell.
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Nanoparticle‐induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) trigger the activation of specific molecules and signaling pathways to elicit varying cellular responses.
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Nanoparticle‐induced oxidative stress can be categorized based on different biological levels.
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Sources of oxidants and their cellular localisation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from various compartments of the cell such as the cytosol, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus. Nanoparticles (NPs) may also contribute as a source of oxidants.
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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies
Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials
Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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