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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Virus‐based nanoparticles as platform technologies for modern vaccines

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Nanoscale engineering is revolutionizing the development of vaccines and immunotherapies. Viruses have played a key role in this field because they can function as prefabricated nanoscaffolds with unique properties that are easy to modify. Viruses are immunogenic via multiple pathways, and antigens displayed naturally or by engineering on the surface can be used to create vaccines against the cognate virus, other pathogens, specific molecules or cellular targets such as tumors. This review focuses on the development of virus‐based nanoparticle systems as vaccines indicated for the prevention or treatment of infectious diseases, chronic diseases, cancer, and addiction. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:554–578. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1383 This article is categorized under: Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Protein and Virus-Based Structures
Nanoparticles as vaccination platforms. (The polymeric assembly was provided by courtsey of Dr. Pokorski)
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Chemical structures of nicotine (left) and cocaine (right).
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Human Hepatitis B virus (viperdb.scripps.edu).
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Human papillomavirus 16L1 capsid (viperdb.scripps.edu).
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Production facility at Medicago. The photograph was provided by courtesy of Medicago Inc.
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Structure of influenza A virus. Three viral proteins are on the outer surface of virus particles: haemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and M2. Influenza virus matrix protein M1 associates inside the membrane, and the viral genome is packaged into the particle as a ribonucleoprotein in complex with nucleocapsid protein (NP) and viral polymerases (PA, PB1, PB2). (From Tao YJ, Zheng W. Visualizing the Influenza Genome. Science 2012, 338: 1545–1546. Reprinted with permission from AAAS.)
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Structure of Ebola virus (Courtesy of David S. Goodsell and RCSB PDB).
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Structure of HIV‐1, with structural proteins in blue, viral enzymes in magenta, accessory proteins in green, and viral RNA in yellow. (1) Envelope glycoprotein spike, comprised of transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 and external envelope glycoprotein gp41; (2) lipid membrane; (3) capsid; (4) matrix; (5) viral RNA. (Adapted from Johnson GT, Goodsell DS, Autin L, Forli S, Sanner MF, Olson AJ. 3D molecular models for whole HIV‐1 virions generated with cellPACK. Faraday Discuss 2014, 169:23‐44 – Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry)
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Genetic engineering strategies for the display of epitopes on viral coat proteins.
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Chemical conjugation strategies (bioconjugation); NHS = N‐hydroxysuccinimde; EDC = 1‐Ethyl‐3‐(3‐dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide.
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Categories of viral vaccines; UV = ultraviolet; VNP = viral nanoparticle; VLP = virus‐like particle.
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