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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Polymeric nanoparticles in development for treatment of pulmonary infectious diseases

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Serious lung infections, such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive cystic fibrosis‐related bacterial diseases, are increasingly difficult to treat and can be life‐threatening. Over the last decades, an array of therapeutics and/or diagnostics have been exploited for management of pulmonary infections, but the advent of drug‐resistant bacteria and the adverse conditions experienced upon reaching the lung environment urge the development of more effective delivery vehicles. Nanotechnology is revolutionizing the approach to circumventing these barriers, enabling better management of pulmonary infectious diseases. In particular, polymeric nanoparticle‐based therapeutics have emerged as promising candidates, allowing for programmed design of multi‐functional nanodevices and, subsequently, improved pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficiency, as compared to conventional routes of delivery. Direct delivery to the lungs of such nanoparticles, loaded with appropriate antimicrobials and equipped with ‘smart’ features to overcome various mucosal and cellular barriers, is a promising approach to localize and concentrate therapeutics at the site of infection while minimizing systemic exposure to the therapeutic agents. The present review focuses on recent progress (2005–2015) important for the rational design of nanostructures, particularly polymeric nanoparticles, for the treatment of pulmonary infections with highlights on the influences of size, shape, composition, and surface characteristics of antimicrobial‐bearing polymeric nanoparticles on their biodistribution, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:842–871. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1401 This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease
Challenges and biodistribution of nanoparticles following (a) intravenous, (b) oral, and (c) inhalational administrations.
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Rational design of multifunctional polymeric NPs as delivery carriers for intravenous or pulmonary administration based on the published/introduced data.
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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease

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