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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Photoactivated drug delivery and bioimaging

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Among the various types of diseases, cancer remains one of the most leading causes of mortality that people are always suffering from and fighting with. So far, the effective cancer treatment demands accurate medical diagnosis, precise surgery, expensive medicine administration, which leads to a significant burden on patients, their families, and the whole national healthcare system around the world. In order to increase the therapeutic efficiency and minimize side effects in cancer treatment, various kinds of stimuli‐responsive drug delivery systems and bioimaging platforms have been extensively developed within the past decades. Among them, the strategy of photoactivated approach has attracted considerable research interest because light enables the precise control, in a highly spatial and temporal manner, the release of drug molecules as well as the activation of bioimaging agents. In general, several appropriate photoresponsive systems, which are normally sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) or visible light irradiation to undergo the multiple reaction pathways such as photocleavage and photoisomerization strategy etc. have been mainly involved in the light activated cancer therapies. Considering the potential issues of poor tissue penetration and high photoctotoxicity of short wavelength light, the recently emerged therapies based on long‐wavelength irradiation, e.g., near‐infrared (NIR) light (700–1000 nm), have displayed distinct advantages in biomedical applications. The light irradiation at NIR window indicates minimized photodamage, deep penetration, and low autofluorescence in living cells and tissues, which are of clinical importance in the desired diagnosis and therapy. In this review article, we introduce the recent advances in light‐activated drug release and biological imaging mainly for anticancer treatment. Various types of strategies such as photocage, photo‐induced isomerization, optical upconversion, and photothermal release by which different wavelength ranges of light can play the important roles in the controlled therapeutic or imaging agents delivery, and activation will be systemically discussed. In addition, the challenges and future perspectives for photo‐based cancer theranostics will be also summarized. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1408. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1408 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
UV light‐triggered the release of D‐luciferin for real‐time bioluminescence imaging. (a) Schematic illustration of the UV‐induced release of D‐luciferin from the nitrobenzene caged D‐luciferin derivatives. (b) In vivo bioluminescence imaging of C6‐fLuc tumor‐bearing mice after injection with A: compound iii without UV irradiation; B: compound iii with UV irradiation; C: D‐luciferin only. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2009 the Royal Society of Chemistry).
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(a) Application of gold nanocages for NIR light‐induced photothermal therapy. (b) The synthesis process of the smart polymer pNIPAAm. (c) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of Au nanocages with the surface covered by polymer. (d) Near‐infrared (NIR)‐light controlled release of the payload from the Au nanocages covered by polymer, the NIR laser irradiated for 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 min, at the power density of 10 mWcm−2. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2009 Nature Publishing Group)
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(a) Nd3+‐doped upconversion nanoparticles for 808 nm light‐triggered bioimaging and PDT therapy. (b) In vivo fluorescence imaging of tumor‐bearing mice (blue circle) at different time (0, 4, 8, and 24 h) after treated with Saline, PEG@CRUN, FA‐PEG@CRUN (from left to right). (c) Photoacoustic imaging in the tumor site at two different time intervals (0 and 1 h) after intravenous injection with PEG@CRUN (top) and FA‐PEG@CRUN (middle), the bottom is the photoacoustic imaging signals. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2016 Nature Publishing Group)
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(a) Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) for NIR light (980 nm)‐induced photodynamic therapy. (b) The tumor growth curves of different groups after in vivo treatment. (c) Computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and CT/PET imaging of HeLa cell‐bearing tumors pretreated with photosensitizers‐loaded‐UCNPs after intravenous injection of 18F‐labeled MISO. (A) tumor with near‐infrared (NIR) light (980 nm) irradiation and (B) tumor without any further treatment. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc)
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(a) Near‐infrared (NIR) light‐activated platinum prodrug for cancer therapy and multimodality imaging. (b) The tumor growth curves of different groups after treatment. (c) In vivo upconversion luminescence (UCL)/Magnetic Resonance (MR)/computed tomography (CT) trimodality imaging of a tumor bearing Balb/c mouse after injected with the UCNPs at the tumor site. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society)
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Extinction coefficient value of water, hemoglobin, and oxyhemoglobin. Light absorption of these major absorbers can be avoided by using short‐wavelength light. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society)
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(a) Visible light‐responsive cobalt complexes moieties and their applications. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society). (b) Chemical structures of the photoresponsive compounds, where TAMRA (red) in NB‐1 (360 nm), Rhodamine 110 (red) in coum‐3 (440 nm), TAMRA (red) in Cob‐4 (560 nm). (c) NB‐1, Coum‐3, and Cob‐4 incubated with HeLa cells before (left) and after (right) photolysis at 355, 440, and 559 nm, respectively. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc)
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Schematic illustration of process for the photocaged folate nanoconjugates activated by ultraviolet irradiation to remove the caging groups, and then to target cancer cells. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc)
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Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging

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