Home
This Title All WIREs
WIREs RSS Feed
How to cite this WIREs title:
WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
Impact Factor: 6.14

Challenges to develop novel anti‐inflammatory and analgesic drugs

Full article on Wiley Online Library:   HTML PDF

Can't access this content? Tell your librarian.

Chronic inflammatory diseases and persistent pain of different origin represent common medical, social, and economic burden, and their pharmacotherapy is still an unresolved issue. Therefore, there is a great and urgent need to develop anti‐inflammatory and analgesic agents with novel mechanisms of action, but it is a very challenging task. The main problem is the relatively large translational gap between the preclinical experimental data and the clinical results due to characteristics of the models, difficulties with the investigational techniques particularly for pain, as well as species differences in the mechanisms. We summarize here the current state‐of‐the‐art medication and related ongoing strategies, and the novel targets with lead molecules under clinical development. The first members of the gold‐standard categories, such as nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs, glucocorticoids, and opioids, were introduced decades ago, and since then very few drugs with novel mechanisms of action have been successfully taken to the clinics despite considerable development efforts. Several biologics targeting different key molecules have provided breakthrough in some autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, but they are expensive, only parenterally available, their long‐term side effects often limit their administration, and they do not effectively reduce pain. Some kinase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase‐4 blockers have recently been introduced as new directions. There are in fact some promising novel approaches at different clinical stages of drug development focusing on transient receptor potential vanilloid 1/ankyrin 1 channel antagonism, inhibition of voltage‐gated sodium/calcium channels, several enzymes (kinases, semicarbazide‐sensitive amine oxidases, and matrix metalloproteinases), cytokines/chemokines, transcription factors, nerve growth factor, and modulation of several G protein‐coupled receptors (cannabinoids, purinoceptors, and neuropeptides). WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1427. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1427 This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Neurological Disease
Targets for novel anti‐inflammatory drugs: ion channels [e.g., transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, P2X purinoceptors], G protein‐coupled receptors (GPCRs; neuropeptide receptors, cannabinoid receptors), cytokine/chemokine receptors, and enzymes (protein kinases, semicarbazide‐sensitive amine oxidase, matrix metalloproteinases) expressed by immune cells and nociceptive nerve endings.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Targets for novel analgesic drugs for inflammatory and neuropathic pain: ligand‐ and voltage‐gated ion channels [e.g., transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, P2X purinoceptors, Nav1.7, Nav1.8, Cav2.2, Cav3.2 channels], G protein‐coupled receptors (GPCRs; neuropeptide receptors, cannabinoid receptors), cytokine/chemokine receptors, neurotrophin receptors, and enzymes (protein kinases, semicarbazide‐sensitive amine oxidase, matrix metalloproteinases) expressed by peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary afferent neurons, second‐order sensory neurons, immune cells, and glial cells.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]

Browse by Topic

Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Neurological Disease

Access to this WIREs title is by subscription only.

Recommend to Your
Librarian Now!

The latest WIREs articles in your inbox

Sign Up for Article Alerts