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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Functional magnetic hybrid nanomaterials for biomedical diagnosis and treatment

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Magnetic nanomaterials integrating supplemental functional materials are called magnetic hybrid nanomaterials (MHNs). Such MHNs have drawn increasing attention due to their biocompatibility and the potential applications either as alternative contrast enhancing agents or effective heat nanomediators in hyperthermia therapy. The joint function comes from the hybrid nanostructures. Hybrid nanostructures of different modification can be easily achieved owing to the large surface‐area‐to‐volume ratio and sophisticated surface characteristic. In this focus article, we mainly discussed the design and synthesis of MHNs and their applications as multimodal imaging probes and therapy agents in biomedicine. These MHNs consisting magnetic nanomaterials with functional nanocomponents such as noble metal or isotopes could perform not only superparamagnetism but also features that can be adapted in, for example, enhancing computed tomography contrast modalities, positron emission tomography, and single‐photon emission computed tomography. The combination of several techniques provides more comprehensive information by both synergizing the advantages, such as quantitative evaluation, higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, and mitigating the disadvantages. Such hybrid nanostructures could also provide a unique nanoplatform for enhanced medical tracing, magnetic field, and light‐triggered hyperthermia. Moreover, potential advantages and opportunities will be achieved via a combination of diagnostic and therapeutic agents within a single platform, which is so‐called ‘theranostics.’ We expect the combination of unique structural characteristics and integrated functions of multicomponent magnetic hybrid nanomaterials will attract increasing research interest and could lead to new opportunities in nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology.

Schematic illustration of the different functions of magnetic hybrid nanomaterials in biomedical diagnosis and treatment [Reprinted with permission from (MRI, CT) Ref . Copyright 2016 Nature Publishing Group; (positron emission tomography) Ref . Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd.; (MHT) Ref . Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society; (MHN left) Ref . Copyright 2012, American Chemical Society; (MHN right) Ref . Copyright 2008, WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim].
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(a) A time‐based illustration of magnetic targeting enhanced theranostic strategy with IONC@Au‐PEG nanoparticles guided by multimodal imaging. (b) T2 ‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cross section and top view images of post‐injection of IONC@Au‐PEG. (c) 3D photoacoustic imaging of tumors taken 24 h post‐injection. From left to right: PA imaging of control, non‐targeted and MF‐targeted tumor. (d) MRI images of 4 T1 tumor‐bearing mice injected with IONC@Au‐PEG without (up) and with (bottom) near‐infrared laser irradiation. (e) Growth curves of tumor on mice after different therapeutic processes as indicated. Red and white arrows (circles) direct MF‐targeted tumor and non‐targeted tumor, respectively [Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2014 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim].
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Magnetic hybrid nanomaterials (MHNs) for hyperthermia‐based cancer therapy. (a) Néel and Brownian relaxation processes in magnetic hyperthermia. (b) Fluorescence microscopy images of HeLa cells after hyperthermia treatment with (Zn0. 4Mn0 .6)Fe2O4 nanoparticles (left) and Feridex (right). (c) An illustration of Pt@Fe2O3 nanorods for radiation and photothermal combined therapy. (d) Fluorescence microscopy images of 4T1 cells without treatment (left) and with Pt@Fe2O3 nanorods under near‐infrared irradiation (right) [Reprinted with permission from (a) Ref . Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society; (b) Ref . Copyright 2009 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim; (c), (d) Ref . Copyright 2016 the Royal Society of Chemistry].
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(a) Heterodimer radionuclide magnetic hybrid nanomaterials (MHNs) for magnetic resonance imaging‐single‐photon emission computed tomography (MRI‐SPECT) dual‐modality imaging, (b) 64Cu‐MoS2‐IO MHNs for positron emission tomography (middle), MRI (right), and photoacoustic tomography (PAT) (bottom) tri‐modal imaging [Reprinted with permission from (a) Ref . Copyright 2015 the Royal Society of Chemistry; (b) Ref . Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society].
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(a) Illustration of Fe3O4 ‐Au MHNs for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging‐computed tomography (MRI‐CT) multimodal imaging. (b) Scheme for Fe3O4 ‐Au magnetic hybrid nanomaterials (MHNs). (c) 3D CT images and (d) T2 ‐weighted MRI of the same rat pre‐ and post‐injection of Fe3O4 ‐Au MHNs [Reprinted with permission from (a) Ref . Copyright 2014 the Royal Society of Chemistry; (b), (c), (d) Ref . Copyright 2015 Elsevier].
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TEM images of (a) Fe3O4 ‐Au heterodimer magnetic hybrid nanomaterials (MHNs). (b) Fe3O4‐Ag125I heterodimer radionuclide MHNs. (c) FePt@Fe2O3 core–shell MHNs. (d) Pt@Fe2O3 core–shell MHNs. Inserts: scheme of corresponding MHNs [Reprinted with permission from (a) Ref . Copyright 2014 the Royal Society of Chemistry; (b) Ref . Copyright 2015 the Royal Society of Chemistry; (c) Ref . Copyright 2013 Elsevier Ltd.; (d) Ref . Copyright 2016 the Royal Society of Chemistry].
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Mauro Ferrari

Mauro Ferrari

started out in mechanical engineering and became interested in nanotechnology with his studies on nanomechanics and nanofluidics. His research work and involvement with setting up some of the premier nano centers and alliances in the world, bringing together universities, hospitals, and federal agencies, showcases interdisciplinarity at work.

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