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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Near infrared quantum dots in biomedical applications: current status and future perspective

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To address the requirements of biomedical applications including biosensing, bioimaging, and drug delivery, fluorescent nanomaterials served as efficient tools in many cases. Among them, near‐infrared quantum dots (NIR QDs) have been used as novel fluorescent labels for their binary advantages of both QDs and NIR light. In this review, through collecting references in recent 10 years, we have introduced basic structures and properties of NIR QDs and summarized the classification and the related synthetic methods. This review also highlights the functionalization and surface bioconjugation of NIR QDs, and their biomedical applications in biosensing, bioimaging, and drug delivery.

Schematic illustration of the QDs synthesis, Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, and fluorescent image of HeLa cells incubated with CuInS2/ZnS@SiO2@Tf nanoparticles. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society)
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Extinction coefficient value of water and oxy‐ and deoxyhemoglobin plotted ranging from visible to near‐infrared wavelength. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society)
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Schematic representation of the quantum confinement effect on the energy level structure of a semiconductor material. The lower panel shows colloidal suspensions of CdSe NCs of different sizes under UV excitation. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry)
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Schematic of the synthetic process of NaYF4:Yb/Tm‐PLL@g‐C3N4 (a). (b) TEM image of NaYF4:Yb/Tm‐PLL. (c) Magnified TEM image displaying a layer of polymer‐modified PLL on NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+. (d) Modified g‐C3N4 on the surface of the PLL layer. (Reprinted with permission from Ref. Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society)
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Schematic Illustration for the NIR QDs‐based technique for revealing the procedure of HSV‐TK/GCV gene in cells and in vivo. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society)
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Schematic Illustration for (a) the synthesis of NIR‐based AuNCs‐PbS‐QDs exploiting co‐template strategy, (b) the detection of AA and three aspects of bioimaging applications utilizing AuNCs‐PbS‐QDs, (c) digital photos and corresponding in situ fluorescence imaging of banana (1,4,7) and side view (2,5,8) and top view (3,6,9) of tangerine with different treatments, (d) The nude mice injected with AuNCs‐PbS‐QDs, AuNCs‐PbS‐QDs/AA, and AuNCs‐PbS‐QDs/AA/AOase, respectively. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society)
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Structure of the hybrid AuNR‐QDs assembly and schematic illustration of its FRET‐based operating principle and (Inset) the turn on FL images in the absence/presence of TNT. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society)
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llustration of ZCIS QDs used as theranostic nanomedicines with intrinsic fluorescence/MSOT imaging and PTT/PDT therapy abilities. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society)
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Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices
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In the Spotlight

Mauro Ferrari

Mauro Ferrari

started out in mechanical engineering and became interested in nanotechnology with his studies on nanomechanics and nanofluidics. His research work and involvement with setting up some of the premier nano centers and alliances in the world, bringing together universities, hospitals, and federal agencies, showcases interdisciplinarity at work.

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