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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Double network hydrogel for tissue engineering

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Double network (DN) hydrogels, a kind of promising soft and tough hydrogels, are produced by two unique contrasting networks with designed network entanglement burst into the field of materials science as versatile functional systems for a very broad range of applications. A part of the DN hydrogels is characterized by extraordinary mechanical properties providing efficient biocompatible and high strength for holding considerable promise in tissue engineering. Following DN hydrogels principles and consideration of biomedical applications, we provide an overall view of the present various DN hydrogels and look forward to the future of DN hydrogels for tissue engineering. In this review, the preparation methods, structure, properties, current situation, and challenges are mainly discussed for the purpose of tissue engineering.

This article is categorized under:

  • Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants
  • Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanotechnology in Tissue Repair and Replacement
Schematic illustration of how polyelectrolyte biopolymers facilitate formation of the contrasting double network (DN) structure from a neutral biocompatible polymer. (Reprinted with permission from Wada et al. (). Copyright 2016 elsevier)
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Physically–chemically crosslinked double network (DN) hydrogels. (a) Ca2+–alginate–PAAm DN gel and (b) agar–PAAm DN gel
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Schematic illustration of the preparation of double network (DN) hydrogels by chemically–chemically crosslinking. (a) Two‐step polymerization method and (b) molecular stent method
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Schematic illustration of the preparation of first PAMPS/PAAm DN hydrogels
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Classification of hydrogel based on different properties
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DN hydrogels for bone tissue engineering. (a) HAp/double network (DN) hydrogels (Reprinted with permission from Silver and Christiansen (). Copyright 2012 wiley) and (b) HAp/SBC/PDMAAm DN hydrogels
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The formation process of double network (DN) hydrogels through supramolecular interactions. (a) DNA and CB [8] host–guest supramolecular DN hydrogel and (b) adamantane modified hyaluronic acid (Ad‐HA, brown) and β‐cyclodextrin modified hyaluronic acid (CD‐HA, green) crosslinked through guest–host
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Schematic and material properties of SHIELD
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Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants
Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanotechnology in Tissue Repair and Replacement

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