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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Stimuli‐activatable nanomedicines for chemodynamic therapy of cancer

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Abstract Chemodynamic therapy (CDT) takes the advantages of Fenton‐type reactions triggered by endogenous chemical energy to generate highly cytotoxic hydroxyl radicals. As a novel modality for cancer treatment, CDT shows minimal invasiveness and high tumor specificity by responding to the acidic and the highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide microenvironment of tumor. The CDT approach for spatiotemporal controllable reactive oxygen species generation exhibits preferable therapeutic performance and satisfying biosafety. In this review article, we summarized the recent advances of stimuli‐activatable nanomedicines for CDT. We also overviewed the strategies for augmenting CDT performance, including increasing the catalytic efficacy through rational design of the nanomaterials, modulating the reaction condition, inputting external energy field, and regulating the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, we discussed the potential and challenges of stimuli‐activatable nanomedicine for clinical translation and future development of CDT. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging
Schematic illustration of activatable nanomedicine for CDT. The ˙OH produced by intratumoral Fenton or Fenton‐like reactions could kill cancer cells effectively. CDT shows its own merits for cancer treatment, including highly specific toward the TME, highly toxicity ˙OH production, and reverse the hypoxia and immunosuppressive TME. CDT, chemodynamic therapy; TME, tumor microenvironment
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Schematic illustration of (a) the synthetic procedure of RALP and (b) the synergistic mechanism of as‐prepared RALP@HOC@Fe3O4 applied in combinational therapy; (c) Intracellular ROS generation; (d) Immunofluorescence staining (HIF‐1α) of tumor slices. (Reprinted with permission from Z. Zhao et al., Copyright 2019 John Wiley and Sons). RALP, ROS‐activatable liposomes; ROS, reactive oxygen species
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(a) Schematic illustration of the synthetic process to construct Pt‐CuS‐PNTs and (b) their applications in combinational cancer therapy. (c) The ROS production capacity of CuS‐PNTs toward various H2O2 concentration investigated by the reaction of ROS with ABTS. (d) The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of DMPO adducts. (e) The mechanism of photo‐induced ˙OH generation. (Reprinted with permission from Y. Lai et al., Copyright 2019 John Wiley and Sons). DMPO, 5,5‐dimethyl‐1‐pyrroline N‐oxide; PNT, peptide nanotube; ROS, reactive oxygen species
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Schematic illustration of (a) the formulation and (b) therapeutic mechanisms of NP(siMCT4). (Reprinted with permission from Y. Liu et al., Copyright 2018 John Wiley and Sons) NP(siMCT4), hydrogen ion pumping siRNA loaded amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles
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(a) The synergistic mechanism of cisplatin and IONPs and (b) cisplatin prodrug‐loaded IONPs for sequential catalytic ROS production. (c) The ROS production and (d) tumor regression of FePt NPs. (Reprinted with permission from P. Ma et al., Copyright 2017 American Chemical Society). IONP, Iron oxide NP; ROS, reactive oxygen species
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(a) The synthetic procedure, biological effects, (b) theranostic function, and (c) Non‐Fenton CDT mechanism of WSSe/MnO2‐INH. (Reprinted with permission from Y. Cheng et al., Copyright 2019 John Wiley and Sons). CDT, chemodynamic therapy; INH, isonicotinyl hydrazine
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Schematic illumination of (a) the CDT enhancement mechanism of FcPWNPs and (b) H&E staining of surface and interior tumor. (Reprinted with permission from P. Zhao et al., Copyright 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry). CDT, chemodynamic therapy; FcPWNP, ferrous‐cysteine‐phosphotungstate NP
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Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging
Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease

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