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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Protein‐based nanoplatforms for tumor imaging and therapy

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Abstract Cancer is one of the leading causes of death all over the world. The development of nanoplatform provides a promising strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. As the foundation of the nanoplatform, the composition of nanocarrier decides the basic properties. Protein exists in all kinds of life and participates in any life activities, having great potentials to serve as a nanocarrier because of its excellent biocompatibility, abundance of functional groups, and inherent biological activity. As a result, protein‐based nanoplatforms have evoked extensive interests for tumor imaging and therapy. This review presents the latest progresses on the advancement of protein‐based nanoplatforms, introducing the most common protein nanocarriers (such as human/bovine serum albumin, ferritin, human transferrin) thoroughly including their physiochemical properties and specific applications. Also, other kinds of protein are briefly involved. Finally, the prospects and challenges of the development of protein‐based nanoplatforms are summarized. This article is categorized under: Biology‐Inspired Nanomaterials > Protein and Virus‐Based Structures Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease
(a) (i) Schematic illustration showing the formation of C–HSA–BPOx–IR825 and its application in pH sensing under both ratiometric fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. (ii) PA imaging of tumors with different sizes after mice were i.v. injected with C–HSA–BPOx–IR825. Images were recorded at 680 and 825 nm excitations and (iii) corresponding quantification analysis of the PA signals based on (ii). Reprinted with permission from Q. Chen, Liu, et al. (2015). Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons. (b) (i) Schematic depiction of oxygen‐augmented immunogenic PDT with C@HPOC for eliciting the anti‐metastatic and abscopal effect. (ii) Schematic depicting the experimental approach for evaluation of the abscopal effect and (iii) anti‐metastatic effect induced by C@HPOC‐mediated PDT. Reprinted with permission from Z. Chen, Liu, Liang, et al. (2018). Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society. (c) (i) Schematic illustration about HCHOA and its the components. (ii) Scheme indicating hypoxia‐responsive dissociation of HCHOA. (iii) Scheme showing that, in the microenvironment of tumor hypoxia, hypoxia‐responsive HCHOA could disintegrate into individual HSA‐based complexes with improved tumor penetrating ability. Reprinted with permission from G. Yang et al. (2019). Copyright 2019 John Wiley & Sons. (d) Schematic illustration of theranostic Ag2S nanodots with clinical potential synthesized through precisely controlled growth in albumin nanocages for in vivo NIR‐II fluorescence/photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy. Reprinted with permission from W. Yang, Guo, et al. (2017). Copyright 2017 American Chemical Society
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Schematic illustration of various protein‐based nanoplatforms for diverse tumor imaging and therapy methods. Inside the inner circle indicates several characteristic protein‐based nanoplatforms acquired with permission from Q. Chen et al. (2019), Q. Zhang, Chen, Ma, Wang, and Chen (2018), Q. Zhang, Wang, et al. (2019), and RCSB PDB (rcsb.org) of PDB ID 2FHA. (Upper and lower left: BSA‐based nanoplatforms; upper right: transferrin‐based nanoplatforms; lower right: ferritin‐based nanoplatforms.) CDT, chemodynamic therapy; Chemo‐T, chemotherapy; CT, X‐ray computed tomography; FL, fluorescence; MR, magnetic resonance; PA, photoacoustic; PDT, photodynamic therapy; PET, positron emission computed tomography; PTT, photothermal therapy; RT, radiotherapy. Note: Other imaging and therapy methods like SPECT imaging and immunotherapy are also involved in this review but not present in this scheme
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(a) Gd nanoparticles biomineralized in the template of Tf proteins. Reprinted with permission from Y. Zhao et al. (2017). Copyright 2017 American Chemical Society. (b) Schematic illustration of holo‐Tf‐ICG nanoassemblies for in vivo dual‐modal imaging and photothermal treatment. Reprinted with permission from Zhu et al. (2017). Copyright 2017 American Chemical Society. (c) Schematic of Tf‐IR780 NPs preparation and the phototherapy mediated by Tf‐IR780 NPs. Reprinted with permission from K. Wang, Zhang, et al. (2016). Copyright 2016 Springer Nature Limited. (d) Synthesis procedure of keratin‐based nanoplatform and its application in theranostics. Reprinted with permission from Y. Li et al. (2018). Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society
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(a) (i) The synthetic procedure of CuS–Fn NCs. (ii) Copper sulfide–ferritin nanocages (CuS–Fn NCs) as clinically translatable cancer theranostics for positron emission tomography (PET) and photoacoustic dual‐modal imaging (PET/PAI) guided photothermal therapy (PTT). Reprinted with permission from Z. Wang, Huang, et al. (2016). Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society. (b) Schematic illustration of the process that HFn nanocarrier traverses BBB and kills the glioma. Reprinted with permission from Fan et al. (2018). Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society. (c) Synthetic procedures of Dox@AFBS. Reprinted with permission from Q. H. Zhang, Chen, Shen, et al. (2019). Copyright 2019 Ivyspring International Publisher
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(a) Schematic illustration of the synthesis of BSA‐CuFeS2 NPs and BSA‐CuFeS2 NPs‐mediated synergetic pH‐independent CDT/PTT. Reprinted with permission from Q. Chen et al. (2019). Copyright 2019 American Chemical Society. (b) (i) Synthetic procedure of BSNSs‐CAT and (ii,iii) illustrations of BSNSs‐CAT as a bioenvironment‐responsive. Versatile nanoplatform for simultaneous rapid clearance, effective tumor homing, and oxygen‐enhanced RT. Reprinted with permission from Q. Zhang et al. (2018). Copyright 2019 American Chemical Society. (c) Synthetic process and therapeutic mechanism of BSA‐IrO2 NPs. Reprinted with permission from W. Zhen et al. (2018). Copyright 2018 John Wiley & Sons. (d) Schematic illustration of the synthesis procedure of the LWMP‐modified albumin nanoparticles and the mechanism of functioning. Reprinted with permission from T. Lin et al. (2016). Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society
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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease
Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Protein and Virus-Based Structures

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