Home
This Title All WIREs
WIREs RSS Feed
How to cite this WIREs title:
WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
Impact Factor: 6.14

Interactions of nanomaterials with the immune system

Full article on Wiley Online Library:   HTML PDF

Can't access this content? Tell your librarian.

Abstract Evaluation of the immunomodulatory potentials of nanomaterials is essential for developing safe and consumer‐friendly nanotechnology. Various nanomaterials interact with the immune system, in a beneficial or deleterious way, but mechanistic details about such interactions are scarce. A lack of agreed‐upon guidelines for evaluating the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) adds to the complexity of the issue. Various review articles have summarized the immune system interactions of biodegradable NPs (with pharmaceutical uses), but such information is largely lacking for nonbiodegradable NPs. Here we give an overview of interactions of nonbiodegradable, persistent NPs with the immune system. Particular emphases include key factors that shape such interactions, cell‐specific responses, allergy and immune‐sensitive respiratory disorders. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2012, 4:169–183. doi: 10.1002/wnan.166 This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials

This WIREs title offers downloadable PowerPoint presentations of figures for non-profit, educational use, provided the content is not modified and full credit is given to the author and publication.

Download a PowerPoint presentation of all images


Schematic overview of nano‐immunotoxicology. Immune dysfunction resulting from exposure to nanomaterials/particles may take the form of a specific stimulation (of one or different compartments of the immune system) leading to, for example, allergy, autoimmunity etc. or it may take the form of an immunosuppression leading to more infectious pathologies and tumor growth.

[ Normal View | Magnified View ]

Exposure to nanoparticles (NPs, ) will effect different cells at the side of exposure. Epithelial cells, tissue macrophages, and dendritic cells will respond simultaneously to an exposure. The final response will depend on the nature of the particle and the ‘mixed’ signals from the cells involved. After the initial stimulation—direct via particle exposure or indirect via released mediators—dendritic cells and macrophages will develop into mature cells and affect both the innate and adapted immune response. In case of preexisting sensitization, NP exposure can affect the exacerbation during allergen challenge. In case of an allergen challenge without preexisting sensitization the developing allergy can be affected with coexposure to NPs. Th1, type 1 T‐helper lymphocyte; Th2, type 2 T‐helper lymphocyte; Treg, regulatory T‐lymphocyte; M1 & M2, polarized macrophages type 1 & 2; DC, dendritic cell; , toll‐like receptor (TLR); , receptor of the complement sytem; ROS, reactive oxygen species; RNS, reactive nitrogen species; Nrf2, Nuclear factor (erythroid‐derived 2)‐like 2; NF‐κB, nuclear factor kappa B. Arrows: dotted line, possible influence; broken line, migration; full line, polarization/differentiation.

[ Normal View | Magnified View ]

Browse by Topic

Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials

Access to this WIREs title is by subscription only.

Recommend to Your
Librarian Now!

The latest WIREs articles in your inbox

Sign Up for Article Alerts