Home
This Title All WIREs
WIREs RSS Feed
How to cite this WIREs title:
WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
Impact Factor: 5.681

Nanoporous membranes for medical and biological applications

Full article on Wiley Online Library:   HTML PDF

Can't access this content? Tell your librarian.

Synthetic nanoporous materials have numerous potential biological and medical applications that involve sorting, sensing, isolating, and releasing biological molecules. Nanoporous systems engineered to mimic natural filtration systems are actively being developed for use in smart implantable drug delivery systems, bioartificial organs, and other novel nano‐enabled medical devices. Recent advances in nanoscience have made it possible to precisely control the morphology as well as physical and chemical properties of the pores in nanoporous materials that make them increasingly attractive for regulating and sensing transport at the molecular level. In this work, an overview of nanoporous membranes for biomedical applications is given. Various in vivo and in vitro membrane applications, including biosensing, biosorting, immunoisolation, and drug delivery, are presented. Different types of nanoporous materials and their fabrication techniques are discussed with an emphasis on membranes with ordered pores. Desirable properties of membranes used in implantable devices, including biocompatibility and antibiofouling behavior, are discussed. The use of surface modification techniques to improve the function of nanoporous membranes is reviewed. Despite the extensive research carried out in fabrication, characterization, and modeling of nanoporous materials, there are still several challenges that must be overcome in order to create synthetic nanoporous systems that behave similarly to their biological counterparts. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

This WIREs title offers downloadable PowerPoint presentations of figures for non-profit, educational use, provided the content is not modified and full credit is given to the author and publication.

Download a PowerPoint presentation of all images


Figure 1.

A schematic diagram of key membrane characteristics that affect the performance.

[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Figure 2.

Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image of ordered porous structures of alumina. The intervals of 100 nm (a), 150 nm (b), and 200 nm (c). (Reprinted with permission from Ref 71. Copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics).

[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Figure 3.

Biological applications of nanoporous materials.

[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Figure 4.

Scanning electron micrograph of anodized diamond‐like carbon (DLC) coated alumina membrane exposed to platelet rich plasma. The pulsed laser deposition method was used for the coating. The surface contains sodium chloride crystals; however, the pores remain free of fouling. (Reprinted with permission from Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Copyright 2007 American Scientific Publishers, http://www.aspbs.com).

[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Figure 5.

Twenty‐four hour MTT viability assays conducted in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) for uncoated (Al), gold‐coated (Au), silicon‐coated (Si), and diamond‐like carbon (DLC) coated nanoporous alumina membranes. Si, Au, and DLC coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using ultraviolet (wavelength = 248 nm) pulsed laser deposition.

[ Normal View | Magnified View ]

Browse by Topic

Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants
blog comments powered by Disqus

Access to this WIREs title is by subscription only.

Recommend to Your
Librarian Now!

The latest WIREs articles in your inbox

Sign Up for Article Alerts

In the Spotlight

James F. Leary

James F. Leary
has been contributing to nanomedical research and technologies throughout his career. Such contributions include the invention of high-speed flow cytometry, cell sorting techniques, and rare-event methods. Dr. Leary’s current research spans across three general areas in nanomedicine. The first is the development of high-throughput single-cell flow cytometry and cell sorting technologies. The second explores BioMEMS technologies. These include miniaturized cell sorters, portable devices for detection of microbial pathogens in food and water, and artificial human “organ-on-a-chip” technologies which consists of developing cell culture chips capable of simulating the activities and mechanics of entire organs and organ systems. His third area of research aims at developing smart nano-engineered systems for single-cell drug or gene delivery for nanomedicine. Dr. Leary currently holds nine issued U.S. Patents with four currently pending, and he has received NIH funding for over 25 years.

Learn More

Twitter: WIREsNanomed Follow us on Twitter